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Chalcides mertensi KLAUSEWITZ, 1954

IUCN Red List - Chalcides mertensi - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Algerian Three-toed Skink 
SynonymChalcides chalcides mertensi KLAUSEWITZ 1954: 198
Chalcides mertensi — BUSACK 1986
Chalcides mertensi — CARRANZA et al. 2008
Chalcides mertensi — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Chalcides chalcides mertensi — BÖHME 2014: 153 
DistributionW Tunisia, Algeria

Type locality: “Biskra, Algerien”  
Reproductionviviparous (phylogenetic imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: SMF 15972 (= 6403, 1a in BOETTGER 1893). Paratype: ZFMK 4944, subadult. 
CommentSubspecies: The (subspecies) C. c. chalcides and C. c. mertensi are considered as "incipient" species by some authors (SCHLEICH et al. 1996). Giovannotti et al. (2013) suggested to split norther and southern populations of C. mertensi into 2 species (without actually doing it). Montero-Mendieta et al. 2017 found that C. minutus, mertensi and relatives are paraphyletic, but their sequence data was relatively limited, so that their results are not conclusive. Orsini & Cheylan 1981 called mertensi a “color morph”. 
EtymologyProbably named after Robert Friedrich Wilhelm Mertens (1894-1975), German herpetologist. 
  • Bassu, L.; V. Nulchis, M. G. Satta, C. Fresi & C. Corti 2008. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles of Sardinia - state of the art and general considerations. Herpetologia Sardiniae (Claudia Corti, ed.), Edizioni Belvedere, 504 pp.
  • Bellairs, A.; Shute, C.C.D. 1954. Notes on the herpetology of an Algerian beach. Copeia 1954 (3): 224-226 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1882. Ber. senckenb. naturf. Ges. 1882: 257 - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, E.G. 1920. On some lizards of the genus Chalcides. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1920: 77-83 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1889. On the reptiles and batrachians obtained in Morocco by M. Henry Vaucher. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 3: 303-307 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1891. Catalogue of the reptiles and batrachians of Barbary (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), based chiefly upon the notes and collections made in 1880-1884 by M. Fernand Lataste. Tr. Zool. Soc. 13: 93-164
  • Busack, S. D. 1986. Taxonomic implications of biochemical and morphological differentiationin Spanish and Moroccan populations of three-toed skinks, Chalcides chalcides (Lacertilia, Scincidae). Herpetologica 42 (2): 230-236 - get paper here
  • Caputo V 1993. Taxonomy and evolution of the Chalcides chalcides complex (Reptilia, Scincidae) with description of two new species. MUSEO REGIONALE DI SCIENZE NATURALI BOLLETTINO (TURIN) 11(1): 47-120 - get paper here
  • Caputo,V. & Odierna,G. 1992. Karyological differentiation between two forms of the Chalcides chalcides complex (Scincidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 13: 193-196 - get paper here
  • Carranza, S.; E.N. Arnold, Ph. Geniez, J. Roca and J.A. Mateo 2008. Radiation, multiple dispersal and parallelism in the skinks, Chalcides and Sphenops (Squamata: Scincidae), with comments on Scincus and Scincopus and the age of the Sahara Desert. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46 (3): 1071-1094 - get paper here
  • Cortés, J.E. 1982. The herpetofauna of Gibraltar - status, recent history and current research. British Journal of Herpetology 6: 273-275 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Engelmann, W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Giovannotti M, Nisi Cerioni P, Kalboussi M, Aprea G, Caputo V. 2007. Phylogeographic inferences from the mtDNA variation of the three-toed skink, Chalcides chalcides (Reptilia: Scincidae). J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 308 (3): 297-307 - get paper here
  • Giovannotti, M.; V. Caputo, P.C.M. O’Brien, F.L. Lovell, V. Trifonov, P. Nisi Cerioni, E. Olmo, M.A. Ferguson-Smith, W. Rens 2009. Skinks (Reptilia: Scincidae) Have Highly Conserved Karyotypes as Revealed by Chromosome Painting. Cytogenet Genome Res 127 (2-4): - get paper here
  • Giovannotti, Massimo; Paola Nisi Cerioni; Andrea Splendiani; Mohsen Kalboussi; Paolo Ruggeri; Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi 2013. Mitochondrial DNA reveals high genetic divergence between populations of Chalcides mertensi Klausewitz, 1954 (Reptilia: Scincidae) from Tunisia. Amphibia-Reptilia 34 (3): 389–399 - get paper here
  • KALBOUSSI, MOHSEN. 2022. Data on the female reproduction of Chalcides mertensi Klausewitz, 1954 (Reptilia: Scincidae) from Tunisia. Zoology and Ecology 21–27. - get paper here
  • Klausewitz,W. 1954. Eidonomische, taxonomische und tiergeographische Untersuchungen über den Rassenkreis der Scinciden Chalcides chalcides und Ch. striatus. Senckenbergiana biologica 35: 187-203
  • Laurent, P. 1935. Contribution à la connalssance de la faune des Vertebres du Maroc (Batraciens, Reptiles, Mammiferes). Bull. Soc. d’Hist. nat. de l’Afrique du Nord 26: 344-359
  • Linnaeus, C. [= Linné, C. von] 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1982. Beitrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien in Portugal. Salamandra 18 (3-4): 218-299 - get paper here
  • Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Joan Ferrer, Mohammed Ait Hammou, Walid Dahmani, Delfi Sanuy, Sebastia Camarasa 2017. Another record or a new taxon? A candidate species of Chalcides Laurenti, 1768, in north Africa (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae). Herpetozoa 29 (3/4): 155 - 161 - get paper here
  • Orsini, J.P. G. & Cheylan, M. 1981. Chalcides chalcides - Erzschleiche. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band I., Echsen I. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden, pp. 318-337
  • Peracca, M.G. 1882. Di un Seps chalcides travato il 18 Maggio 1882 sul versante meridionale del colle la Maddalena, presso Torino. Atti della R. Accademia delle Scienze di Torino. Classe di Scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali 18: 74
  • Rugiero, Lorenzo; Luiselli, Luca 2007. Null model analysis of lizard communities in five urban parks of Rome. Amphibia-Reptilia 28 (4): 547-553 - get paper here
  • Schleich, H.H., Kästle,W., Kabisch, K. 1996. Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa. Koeltz, Koenigstein, 627 pp.
  • Schwarzer, U.; Epperlein, C. & Kühnel, K.-D. 1982. Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna der Toskana, Teil 1: Die Reptilien. Herpetofauna 4 (20): 17-20 - get paper here
  • Siebenrock, Friedrich 1895. Zur Kenntnis des Rumpfskeletes der Scincoiden, Anguiden und Gerrhosauriden. Annalen des Königlichen Kaiserlichen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseum in Wien (Wien), 10 (1): 17-41. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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