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Chalcides ocellatus (FORSKÅL, 1775)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesChalcides ocellatus ocellatus (FORSKAL 1775)
Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu (HERMANN 1783)
Chalcides ocellatus linosae BOULENGER 1920
Chalcides ocellatus sacchii LANZA 1954
Chalcides ocellatus subtypicus WERNER 1931
Chalcides ocellatus zavattarii LANZA 1954 
Common NamesE: Ocellated (Bronze) Skink
G: (Gefleckter) Walzenskink
Italian: gongilo 
SynonymLacerta ocellata FORSKAL 1775: 13
Lacerta lateralis THUNBERG 1787 (fide LÖNNBERG 1896: 36)
Lacerta lateralis — LACÉPÈDE 1788: 104
Stincus ocellatus — MEYER 1795: 30
Ameiua tiligugu — MEYER 1795: 29
Stincus ocellatus — OLIVIER 1801: plate 16
Gongylus ocellatus — WAGLER 1830
Gongylus ocellatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 616
Gongylus ocellatus — GRAVENHORST 1851: 344
Seps ocellatus — GÜNTHER 1871
Gongylus ocellatus — ANDERSON 1872
Seps (Gongylus) ocellatus — BOETTGER 1879: 73
Seps (Gongylus) ocellatus — BOETTGER 1880
Seps ocellatus — BOETTGER 1885
Chalcides ocellatus — BOULENGER 1887: 400
? Chalcides ocellatus — BOULENGER 1887: 408
Chalcides ocellatus — SCORTECCI 1931: 12
Chalcides ocellatus ocellatus — SMITH 1935: 349
Chalcides ocellatus tassiliensis [ANGEL 1936]
Chalcides ocellatus sacchii LANZA 1954
Chalcides ocellatus sacchii — LANZA 1988
Chalcides ocellatus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Chalcides ocellatus — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 334
Chalcides ocellatus — LARGEN & SPAWLS 2010: 371
Chalcides ocellatus — MEIRI et al. 2019

Chalcides ocellatus linosae BOULENGER 1920
Chalcides ocellatus var. linosae BOULENGER 1920:82
Chalcides ocellatus linosanus MERTENS 1921: 118
Chalcides ocellatus linosae — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 337
Chalcides ocellatus linosae — SINDACO & RAZZETTI 2021

Chalcides ocellatus sacchii LANZA 1954: 162

Chalcides ocellatus subtypicus WERNER 1931
Chalcides ocellatus subtypicus — HEDIGER 1935
Chalcides ocellatus forme subtypicus — BONS 1959
Chalcides ocellatus suhtypicus [sic] — TIEDEMANN 1994: 21
Chalcides ocellatus subtypicus — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 337

Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu (HERMANN 1783)
Lacerta tiligugu HERMANN 1783
(Lacerta) tiligugu GMELIN in LINNAEUS 1789
Chalcides ocellatus var. tiligugu — BOULENGER 1890
Chalcides ocellatus var. tiligugu — ANDERSON 1896: 49
Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu — LOVERIDGE 1936: 73
Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu — MUTZ et al. 1999
Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu — WIRTH 2010
Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu — SINDACO & RAZZETTI 2021

Chalcides ocellatus zavattarii LANZA 1954: 166
Chalcides ocellatus zavattarii — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 337
Chalcides ocellatus zavattarii — SINDACO & RAZZETTI 2021 
DistributionEurope: Italy (Sardinia, Sicily, Lampedusa island), Malta, Greece (Crete, Karpathos, Rhodos, Kythnos, Kasos), Cyprus, Turkey (Anatolia).

Middle East: Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Iraq, Oman, Yemen, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Iran, Saudi Arabia,

Asia: S Turkmenistan, W Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka

Africa: Morocco, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Niger, Mali, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan (Jumhūriyyat), Republic of South Sudan (RSS), Chad,

linosae: Linosa Island; Type locality: Insel Linosa, zwischen Sizilien und Tunesien; K. ESCHERICH l. d. 1893. Holotype: SMF 15926 (= Kat. BOETTGER 6400 o = Kat. MERTENS 6400, 2a).

sacchii: Somalia. Type locality: Lugh, Somalia.

subtypicus: NE Morocco, NW Algeria; Type locality: Oglat Cedra, Debdan, Taourirt, Morocco (mulitple localities for multiple syntypes)

tiligugu: Sicily, Sardinia (RIMPP 1979), Malta (BRUEKERS 2002), NE Maghreb, NE Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia

zavattarii: Italy

zavattarii: Lampedusa Island, Isolotto dei Conigli (Pelagian Islands).

Type locality: Egypt  
TypesType: unlocated (ŠMÍD et al. 2014 Zootaxa 3855 (1): 43)
Syntypes: BMNH 1911.1.16.6, 1928.12.8.387-395, all from Linosa, collected J. de Bedriaga [linosae]
Syntypes: NMW 13466, Taourirt-Debdou, Morocco, collected by F. Werner 14.v.1930; MCZ R31451, R31453, MCZ R-31453, Debdan-Taourirt, Morocco, collected F. Werner, 14-15.v.1930; R31452, Oglat Cedra, Morocco, collected F. Werner, 12.v.1930; R31458, Taourirt, Morocco, collected F. Werner, 15.v.1930 [subtypicus]
Holotype: MSNG 28819, collected U. Ferrandi, 1897 [sacchii]
Holotype: MZUF [zavattarii] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: “Körper walzenförmig, gedrungen, mit gut entwickelten fünfzehigen Beinen, wodurch sich die Art von dem auf Sardinien und Sizilien sympatrischen C. chalcides unterscheidet. Vom allopatrischen (Iberische Halbinsel) C. bedriagai (vgl. das entspr. Kapitel) durch das an das 2. und 3. Supralabiale stoßende Loreale unterschieden. Gegenüber den Chalcides-Arten des benachbarten Nordwestafrika zeichnet sich C. ocellatus vor C. mauritanicus durch den Besitz eines Postnasale, vor C. atlantis, mionecton und polylepis durch die Ohröffnung aus, die viel größer als das Nasenloch ist.” (Schneider 1981: 338). 
CommentSubspecies: C.o. zavattarii is probably a hybrid between C. o. ocellatus and C. o. tiligugu (LANZA 1993). C. o. linosae and zavattarii are of doubtful validity (SINDACO & JEREMCENKO 2008).

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. Not in East Africa (S. Spawls, pers. comm., 28 June 2018). See map in Burriel-Carranza et al. 2019 for map in UAE. See Bar et al. 2021 for a map.

Authorship: Although Gmelin is often considered as author of C. o. tiligugu, Hermann’s (1783) description not only antedates Gmelin (1789), but also consistently applied Linnean binominal nomenclature and is therefore an available work in accordance with Art. 11.4 of the Code. According to Art. 50.1.1 of the Code (ICZN 1999) Hermann is the author, not Cetti 1777 who used the name tiligugu earlier (Denzer 2023). 
EtymologyFrom lat. ocellus = diminuitive of oculus: eye; with ocellated scales, or patches that look like eyes. 
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