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Chamaeleo africanus LAURENTI, 1768

IUCN Red List - Chamaeleo africanus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: African Chameleon
G: Basilisken-Chamäleon, Afrikanisches Chamäleon 
SynonymChamaeleo africanus LAURENTI 1768: 46
Chamaeleo candidus LAURENTI 1768 (?)
Chamaeleo mexicanus LAURENTI 1768 (?)
Chamaeleo aegyptius BONNATERRE 1789
Chamaeleo calcaratus MERREM 1820: 162
Chamaeleon basiliscus COPE 1868
Chamaeleon basiliscus — BOULENGER 1897: 132
Chamaeleon basiliscus — WERNER 1911: 11
Chamaeleon basilicus — STERNFELD 1917: 409 (in error)
Chamaeleon basiliscus — LOVERIDGE 1936: 75
Chamaeleo africanus — MERTENS 1966: 17
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) africanus — KLAVER & BÖHME 1986: 59
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) africanus — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) africanus — NECAS 1999: 110
Chamaeleo africanus — TILBURY & TOLLEY 2009
Chamaeleo africanus — TILBURY 2010: 440 
DistributionMauritania, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Egypt, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Benin, Sudan, Greece

Type locality (restricted): Africa (fide MERTENS 1966: 6) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: not located; based on SEBA (1734) I, plate 43, fig. 4 (43 is a misprint for 83). 
CommentDistribution: Not in Gabon fide PAUWELS & VANDE WEGHE 2008. Not in Ethiopia or Eritrea; Figure 171 in Largen & Spawls 2010 is C. calcaricarens (not C. africanus as indicated, fide Wagner 2011, Salamandra 47: 61). 
EtymologyNamed after its African origin. 
References
  • Bonnaterre, P.J. 1789. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature, . . . Erpétologie. Panckoucke, Paris, xxviii+71 pp. (+ plates + index) - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1898. On a second collection of reptiles made by Mr. E. Lord-Phillips in Somaliland. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 2: 130-133 - get paper here
  • Buchert, I. & Buchert, P/ 2011. Die Gaviola-Lagune. Elaphe 19 (1): 26-32
  • Chirio, L. 2009. Inventaire des reptiles de la région de la Réserve de Biosphère Transfrontalière du W (Niger/Bénin/Burkina Faso: Afrique de l’Ouest). [Herpetological survey of the W Transfrontier Biosphere Reserve area (Niger/Benin/Burkina Faso: West Africa]. Bull. Soc. Herp. France (132): 13-41 - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Chirio, Laurent and Ivan Ineich 2006. Biogeography of the reptiles of the Central African Republic. African Journal of Herpetology 55(1):23-59. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1869. Observations on Reptiles of the old world. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1868: 316-323 - get paper here
  • Dimaki, Maria, Anna K. Hundsdörfer and Uwe Fritz. 2008. Eastern Mediterranean chameleons Chamaeleo chamaeleon, Ch. africanus are distinct. Amphibia-Reptilia 29 (4):535-540 - get paper here
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Gonwouo, L.N.; LeBreton, M.; Wild, C.; Chirio, L.; Ngassam, P. & Tchamba, M.N. 2006. Geographic and ecological distribution of the endemic montane chameleons along the Cameroon maountain range. Salamandra 42 (4): 213-230 - get paper here
  • Joger, U. 2010. Projekt Dino: Auf Dinosaurierjagd in Niger, Afrika. Elaphe 18 (1): 6-13
  • Klaver,C. & BÖHME,W. 1986. Phylogeny and classification of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria), with special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonn. zool. Monogr., 22: 1-64.
  • Kosuch, Joachim, Miguel Vences and Wolfgang Böhme. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data support the allocation of Greek mainland chameleons to Chamaeleo africanus. Amphibia-Reptilia 20 (4): 440-443 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
  • Kwet, A. 2011. Neu entdeckte Echsengifte - Medikamente der Zukunft?. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 3-7 - get paper here
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  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. 2006. Lizards of Ethiopia (Reptilia Sauria): an annotated checklist, bibliography, gazetteer and identification. Tropical Zoology 19 (1): 21-109 - get paper here
  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 694 pp.
  • Laurenti, J. N. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austracorum, quod authoritate et consensu. Vienna, Joan. Thomae, 217 pp.
  • Loveridge,A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Macey, J. Robert; Jennifer V. Kuehl, Allan Larson, Michael D. Robinson, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Natalia B. Ananjeva, Hafizur Rahman, Hamid Iqbal Javed, Ridwan Mohamed Osman, Ali Doumma, Theodore J. Papenfuss 2008. Socotra Island the forgotten fragment of Gondwana: Unmasking chameleon lizard history with complete mitochondrial genomic data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (3): 1015-1018 - get paper here
  • Machts, Tobias 2010. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Peloponnes-Halbinsel. Draco 11 (42): 65-72
  • Machts, Tobias 2014. Der physiologische Farbwechsel bei Chamäleons. Draco 15 (58): 24-37 - get paper here
  • Merrem, B. 1820. Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum). J. C. Kriegeri, Marburg, 191 pp.
  • Mertens, Robert 1966. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien: Chamaeleonidae. Das Tierreich 83: 1-37
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
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  • Rutschke, J.; Koepe, D. & Deichsel, G. 2005. Beobachtungen zu anthropogenen Einflüssen auf die Reptilienfauna des Peloponnes (Griechenland). Herpetofauna 25 (143): 17-28 [2003/2004] - get paper here
  • Schmidt, W.; Tamm, K. & Wallikewitz, E. 2010. Chamäleons - Drachen unserer Zeit. Natur und Tier Verlag, 328 pp. [review in Reptilia 101: 64, 2013] - get paper here
  • Seba,A. 1734. Locupletissimi Rerum naturalium Thesauri accurata Descriptio, et Iconibus artificiosissimus Expressio, per universam Physices Historiam. Opus, cui in hoc Rerum Genere, nullum par exstitit. Vol. 1. Janssonio-Waesbergios, Amsterdam. 178 pp. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Sternfeld,R. 1917. Reptilia und Amphibia. In: Schubotz, H. (Hrsg.): Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition, 1910-1911 unter Führung Adolph Friedrichs, Herzog zu Mecklenburg. Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann, [Band] 1, Zoologie, Lieferung 11; S. 407-510. - get paper here
  • Tilbury, C. 2010. Chameleons of Africa: An Atlas, Including the Chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt M., 831 pp.
  • Tilbury, C. R. & Tolley, Krystal A. 2009. A re-appraisal of the systematics of the African genus Chamaeleo (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa 2079: 57–68 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F.; Trape, S. & Chirio, L. 2012. Lézards, crocodiles et tortues d'Afrique occidentale et du Sahara. IRD Orstom, 503 pp. - get paper here
  • TRAPP, B. 2004. Chamaeleo africanus in Griechenland. CHAMAELEO 14(1): 5-12. - get paper here
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  • Trapp, B. 2007. Reptilien und Amphibien des griechischen Festlandes. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 300 pp. - get paper here
  • Trapp,B. 2006. Chamaeleo africanus in Griechenland - es geht wieder bergauf. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (58): 4-6 - get paper here
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