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Chamaeleo dilepis LEACH, 1819

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesChamaeleo dilepis dilepis LEACH, 1819
Chamaeleo dilepis idjwiensis LOVERIDGE, 1942
Chamaeleo dilepis isabellinus GÜNTHER, 1893
Chamaeleo dilepis martensi MERTENS, 1964
Chamaeleo dilepis petersii GRAY, 1865
Chamaeleo dilepis quilensis BOCAGE 1866
Chamaeleo dilepis roperi BOULENGER 1890
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii BOETTGER 1893 
Common NamesE: Flapneck Chameleon
G: Lappenchamäleon
E: Bocage's Chameleon [quilensis]
G: Südafrikanisches Lappenchamäleon [quilensis] 
SynonymChamaeleo dilepis LEACH 1819: 493
Chamaeleo bilobus KUHL 1820
Chamaeleo planiceps MERREM 1820
Chamaeleo dilepis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 225
Chamaeleo dilepas - MARTIN 1838
Chamaeleo dilepis — GRAY 1864: 384
Chamaeleo petersii var. kirkii GRAY 1865
Chamaeleo capellii BOCAGE 1866: 42
Chamaeleon dilepis — GRAY 1865: 348
Chamaeleo angusticoronatus BARBOUR 1903
Chamaeleon ruspolii BOETTGER 1893: 116 (fide LARGEN & SPAWLS 2006)
Chamaeleon isabellinus GÜNTHER 1893: 556
Chamaeleon dilepis isabellinus — WERNER 1911: 14 (partim)
Chamaeleon dilepis — SCHMIDT 1919: 577
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii — PARKER 1942: 79.
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii — MERTENS 1966: 13
Chamaeleo dilepis dilepis — AUERBACH 1987: 101
Chamaeleo dilepis dilepis — BROADLEY 1991: 522
Chamaeleo dilepis dilepis — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 12
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) dilepis — NECAS 1999: 127
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) ruspolii — NECAS 1999: 127
Chamaeleo dilepis — PAUWELS et al. 2004
Chamaeleo dilepis — TILBURY & TOLLEY 2009

Chamaeleo dilepis idjwiensis LOVERIDGE 1942
Chamaeleo dilepis idjwiensis LOVERIDGE 1942: 363
Chamaeleo dilepis idjwiensis — MERTENS 1966: 12
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) dilepis idjwiensis — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997: 33
Chamaeleo dilepis idjwiensis — LUTZMANN et al. 2014
Chamaeleo dilepis idjwiensis — GLAW 2015

Chamaeleo dilepis isabellinus GÜNTHER, 1893
Chamaeleo isabellinus GÜNTHER 1893: 556
Chamaeleon isabelinus — BOCAGE 1896: 103 (in error)
Chamaeleo dilepis isabellinus — LOVERIDGE 1920: 163 ?
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) dilepis isabellinus — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997: 33
Chamaeleo dilepis isabellinus — GLAW 2015

Chamaeleo dilepis martensi MERTENS, 1964
Chamaeleo dilepis martensi MERTENS, 1964: 113
Chamaeleo dilepis martensi — MERTENS 1966: 13
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) dilepis martensi — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997: 33
Chamaeleo dilepis martensi — GLAW 2015

Chamaeleo dilepis petersii GRAY, 1865
Chamaeleon petersii GRAY 1865: 470
Chamaeleon dilepis — WERNER 1911: 13 (partim)
Chamaeleo dilepis petersii — LOVERIDGE 1953: 186
Chamaeleo dilepis petersii — MERTENS 1966: 13
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) dilepis petersii — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997: 34
Chamaeleo dilepis petersii — GLAW 2015

Chamaeleo dilepis quilensis BOCAGE 1866
Chamaeleo dilepis var. quilensis BOCAGE 1866
Chamaeleon parvilobus BOULENGER 1887
Chamaeleon parvilobus — BOETTGER 1894: 91
Chamaeleon parvilobus — WERNER 1897
Chamaeleon parvilobus — LOVERIDGE 1923
Chamaeleo quilensis — LANZA 1983: 210
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) quilensis — NECAS 1999: 127
Chamaeleo dilepis quilensis — GLAW 2015

Chamaeleo dilepis roperi BOULENGER 1890
Chamaeleon roperi BOULENGER 1890: 85
Chamaeleon dilepis roperi — ANGEL 1925
Chamaeleon dilepis roperi — LOVERIDGE 1936: 76
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) dilepis roperi — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997: 34
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) roperi — NECAS 1999: 127
Chamaeleo dilepis roperi — GLAW 2015

Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii BOETTGER 1893
Chamaeleon ruspolii BOETTGER 1893: 116
Chamaeleon isabellinus GÜNTHER 1893: 556
Chamaeleon dilepis isabellinus — WERNER 1911: 14 (partim)
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii — PARKER 1942: 79.
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii — MERTENS1966: 13
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997: 34
Chamaeleo (Chamaeleo) ruspolii — NECAS 1999: 127
Chamaeleo dilepis ruspolii — GLAW 2015 
DistributionCongo, Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Malawi (Shire Highlands), Namibia, Nigeria, Republic of South Africa, Swaziland, Botswana,
Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda (see note), Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire; except in the north), Zambia, Burundi, Uganda, E Zaire, Tanzania (Pemba Island), Mozambique, Central African Republic ?, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe

Type locality: Congo

idjwiensis: Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, E Zaire; Type locality: Upper Mulinga River, Idjwi Island, Lake Kivu, Belgian Congo (= Zaire).

isabellinus: Malawi (Shire Highlands); Type locality: Shire Highlands south of Laka Nyassa, principally upon Mount Zomba and Mount Milanje, Nyassaland (= Malawi).

martensi: Pemba Island; Type locality: Pemba Island

petersii: Mozambique, Malawi; Type locality: Mozambique

quilensis: Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, Somalia (Lanza 1990), Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Republic of South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe; Type locality: Rio Quilo, north of Cabinda.

roperi: E Kenya, Uganda, NE Tanzania, Zaire, Angola; Type locality: Kilifi, north of Mombasa, Kenya.

ruspolii: Ethiopia, NW Somalia; Type locality: Ogaden, Somaliland. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
ReproductionMales and females have slightly asynchronous reproductive cycles but breed during spring–summer (Reanney et al. (2012)). 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.13.75.
Holotype: MCZ 47155. [idjwiensis]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.8.21.5. [isabellinus]
Holotype: SMF 16144. [martensi]
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.8.3:67-69 and 1947.3.6.54 (4 specimens). [petersii]
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.8.22.1-2 (2 specimens). [roperi]
Lectotype: SMF 16300. [ruspolii] 
CommentDistribution: While Klaver and Bohme (1997) list Uganda in the distribution of Chamaeleo dilepis, Spawls, et al. (2001: 219) state there are "...no credible records from Uganda." Currently, the on-line CITES species database lists "Uganda?" in the distribution for C. dilepis. C. dilepis reported from the Central African Republic by JOGER (1990) have been identified as C. gracilis by CHIRIO & INEICH (2006). BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991 report Chamaeleo dilepis dilepis from Tanzania and list quilensis as a synonym. Not in Gabon fide PAUWELS & VANDE WEGHE 2008. C. roperi is not listed for Tanzania by BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991 (but by KLAVER & BÖHME 1997). Not in Gabon fide PAUWELS & VANDE WEGHE 2008.

Sexual dimorphism: Reanney et al. (2012) found that females were larger than males in both snout-vent length (SVL) and pelvic width. The smallest sexually reproductive female was 80 mm SVL, whereas the smallest mature male was 60 mm. Female body size also correlated with clutch size (mean: 44.2, range: 19–74) and volume, suggesting the female-biased size dimorphism may be the product of fecundity selection.

Diet: arthropods, dominated by orthopterans, followed by coleopterans (Reanney et al. 2012).

Synonymy: LARGEN & SPAWLS 2006 synonymized Chamaeleo ruspolii with Chamaeleo dilepis.

Subspecies: C. quilensis iand C. roperi are “variants” of Ch. dilepis (TILBURY 2010, pers. comm.).

The C. deremensis in Lantermann & Lantermann (2007) is actually C. dilepis [erratum in Draco 28 (4): 2]. 
References
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