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Chelonoidis chilensis (GRAY, 1870)

IUCN Red List - Chelonoidis chilensis - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaTestudinidae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Argentine tortoise
G: Argentinische Landschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo (Gopher) chilensis GRAY 1870
Testudo argentina SCLATER 1870 (nomen subst. pro T. chilensis GRAY)
Testudo (Chelonoidis) chilensis - WILLIAMS 1952
Testudo chilensis - WERMUTH & MERTENS 1961
Geochelone chilensis - PRITCHARD 1967
Geochelone petersi FREIBERG 1973
Chelonoidis chilensis donosobarrosi (FREIBERG 1973)
Testudo chilensis — KAHL et al. 1980: 109
Chelonoidis chilensis petersi — OBST 1985: 218
Chelonoidis chilensis - IVERSON 1986
Chelonoidis donosobarrosi — CEI 1986
Geochelone chilensis - ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Chelonoidis chilensis - CEI 1993
Chelonoidis chilensis — VARELA & BUCHER 2002
Chelonoidis petersi — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004
Chelonoidis chilensis — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004
Chelonoidis chilensis — CARNOVALE 2005
Chelonoidis chilensis — LE et al. 2006
Chelonoidis petersi — BONIN et al 2006
Geochelone chilensis — WINCHELL 2010
Chelonoidis chilensis — TTWG 2014: 393
Chelonoidis chilensis — TTWG 2017: 124 
DistributionSW Bolivia, W Paraguay,
NW Argentina (southward to about 40° S in N Patagonia)

Type locality: Mendoza, Argentina

donosobarrosi: Argentina (Río Negro); Type locality: San Antonio, Río Negro, Argentina.

petersi: Argentina (Santiago del Estero, La Rioja), Paraguay (S Chaco); Type locality: Kishka, La Banda, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1947.3.5.8 and 1947.3.5.9 (both formerly BMNH 70.12.18.2) 
CommentDistribution: KAHL et al. 1980 stated that Geochelone chilensis occurs in Uruguay too. The original type locality mentioned “Chile” but the species does not occur in Chile.

Synonymy: WERMUTH & MERTENS (1977: 77) as well as FRITZ & HAVAS (2007: 269) listed Geochelone petersi as a synonym of Geochelone chilensis. Synonymy after Van Dijk et al. 2012. 
References
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Buskirk, J.R. 1993. Distribution, Status and Biology of the Tortoise, Geochelone chilensis, in Rio-Negro Province, Argentina. Stud Neotrop Fauna Environ 28 (4): 233-249
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Carnovale, A. 2005. Keeping and breeding the Argentine Tortoise Chelonoidis chilensis. Reptilia (GB) (38): 38-42 - get paper here
  • Cei, J.M. 1986. Reptiles del centro, centro-oeste y sur de la Argentina; herpetofauna de las zonas aridas y semiaridas. Mus. Regionale di Sci. Natur., Torino, Monogr. 4: 527 pp.
  • Ernst, Carl H 1998. Geochelone chilensis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 668: 1-5 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Gonzales, Lucindo; Arturo Muñoz y Edson Cortez 2006. PRIMER REPORTE SOBRE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA RESERVA NATURAL “EL CORBALÁN”, TARIJA, BOLIVIA [FIRST REPORT ON THE HERPETOFAUNA OF “EL CORBALAN” NATURAL RESERVE, TARIJA, BOLIVIA]. Kempffiana 2 (1): 72-94 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1870. Note on Testudo chilensis. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 6: 428 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1870. Notice of a new Chilean tortoise (Testudo chilensis). Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 6: 190 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1871. Note on Testudo chilensis. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 8: 70 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1871. Reply to Dr. Sclater’s paper in the ‘Annals’ on Testudo chilensis &c. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 7: 15-20 - get paper here
  • Kacoliris F.P.; Berkunsky I. & Williams J. 2006. Herpetofauna of Impenetrable, Argentinean Great Chaco. Phyllomedusa 5 (2): 149-158 - get paper here
  • Kahl B, Gaupp P & Schmidt G 1980. Das Terrarium. Falken Verlag, Niederhausen (Germany), 336 pp.
  • Knaack, J. 2006. Beobachtungen zum Vorkommen von Geochelone (Chelonoidis) im südlichen Bolivien. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (59): 77-82 - get paper here
  • Kubisch, Erika, Maria Eugenia Echave and Luis Alberto Echave. 2014. Chelonoidis chilensis (Chaco tortoise) predation. Herpetological Review 45 (4): 684-685
  • Le, Minh; Christopher J. Raxworthy, William P. McCord and Lisa Mertz 2006. A molecular phylogeny of tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 450 (2): 517-531 - get paper here
  • McAllister, Chris T., Lance A. Durden and Paul S. Freed. 2013. Chelonoidis chilensis (Argentine tortoise) ectoparasite. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 302
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2004. Chelonian Illustrations #14: North and South American Tortoises. Reptilia (GB) (34): 47-50 - get paper here
  • Philippi, R.A. 1871. [Letter on Testudo argentina]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1871: 480 - get paper here
  • Richard, E. 1994. Espectro trófic de Chelonoidis chilensis (Chelonii: Testudinidae) en la provincia fitogeografica del Monte (Mendoza, Argentina). Cuadernos de Herpetología 8 (1): 131-140 - get paper here
  • Sanchez, Julieta, Leandro Alcalde, Alejandro Daniel Bolzan, Maria Rocio Sanchez and Maria de Valle Lazoz. 2014. Abundance of Chelonoidis chilensis (Gray, 1870) within protected and unprotected areas from the Dry Chaco and Monte Eco-regions (Argentina) (Reptilia: Testudines: Testudinidae). Herpetozoa 26 (3/4): 159-167 - get paper here
  • Sanchez, Julieta; Alcalde, Leandro; Bolzan, Alejandro D. 2015. First evidence of chromosomal variation within Chelonoidis chilensis (Testudines: Testudinidae). The Herpetological Journal 25 (2): 83-89 - get paper here
  • SÁNCHEZ, JULIETA; JUAN A. HOLLEY, SEBASTIÁN POLJAK, ALEJANDRO D. BOLZÁN, CLAUDIO M. BRAVI 2017. Phylogenetic and divergence time analysis of the Chelonoidis chilensis complex (Testudines: Testudinidae) Zootaxa 4320 (3): - get paper here
  • Sclater, P.L. 1870. Remarks on the animals lately described by Dr. Gray as Testudo chilensis and Ateles Bartlettii. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 6: 470-473 - get paper here
  • Sclater, P.L. 1871. Reply to Dr. Gray on Testudo chilensis &c. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 7: 161 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Anders G.J. Rhodin, John B. iverson, Roger Bour, Uwe Fritz, Arthur GeoRges, H. BRadley Shaffer, and Peter Paul van Dijk 2017. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (8th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Pritchard, P.C.H., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Ed Chelonian Research Monographs 7:1–292. doi: 10.3854/crm.7.checklist.atlas.v8.2017 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Dijk, Peter Paul van; John B. Iverson, H. Bradley Shaffer; Roger Bour & Anders G.J. Rhodin [turtle taxonomy working group] 2012. Turtles of the World, 2012 Update: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v5.2012
  • Valverde, J. 2009. Südamerikanische Schildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (80): 16-27 - get paper here
  • Varela, R. O. & Bucher, E.H. 2002. Seed dispersal by Chelonoidis chilensis in the Chaco Dry Woodlands of Argentina. Journal of Herpetology 36 (1): 137-140 - get paper here
  • Vinke, S.; H. Vetter, T. Vinke, and S. Vetter 2008. South American Tortoises. Chelonoidis carbonaria, C. denticulata and C. chilensis. Chimaira. ISBN 9783899736038. 355 p.
  • Vinke, T. & Vinke, S. 2000. Biotopbeobachtungen an Geochelone chilensis (GRAY 1870) im Gran Chaco von Paraguay. Sauria 22 (2): 25-29 - get paper here
  • Vinke, T. & Vinke, S. 2001. The turtle and tortoise fauna of the central Chaco of Paraguay. Radiata 10 (3): 3-19
  • Vinke, T. & Vinke, S. 2009. Erkenntnisse zur Fortpflanzung der Argentinischen Landschildkröte, Chelonoidis chilensis, unter menschlicher Obhut. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (76): 41-45 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2010. Die Reptilien Argentiniens. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (83): 20-27 - get paper here
 
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