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Chironius carinatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSipo 
SynonymColuber carinatus LINNAEUS 1758: 223
Coluber (Chironius) DONNDORFF 1798: 209
Natrix carinatus — MERREM 1820: 120
Erpetodryas carinatus — BOIE 1826: 237
Chironius carinatus - FITZINGER 1826: 31, 60
Herpetodryas carinatus — WAGLER 1830: 180
Herpetodryas carinatus var. carinatissima JAN 1863 (NOMEN OBLITUM)
Herpetodryas carinatus var. decalepis JAN 1863 (NOMEN DUBIUM)
Herpetodryas carinatus var. glabra JAN 1863 (NOMEN DUBIUM)
Herpetodryas carinatus var. macrophthalma JAN 1863 (NOMEN DUBIUM)
Herpetodryas carinatus — BOULENGER 1886: 433
Herpetodryas carinatus — BOULENGER 1894: 73
Herpetodryas carinatus — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 152
Erpetodryas sexcarinatus — FOWLER 1913: 171
Herpetodryas carinatus — BARBOUR 1915: 77
Chironius carinatus — RUTHVEN 1922: 65
Chironius carinatus — BEEBE 1946: 21
Chironius carinatus — DUELLMAN 1978: 231
Chironius carinatus carinatus — DIXON et al. 1993: 73
Chironius carinatus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Chironius carinatus carinatus — BOOS 2001
Chironius carinatus — SAVAGE 2002
Chironius carinatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 159 
DistributionBrazil (Pernambuco, Bahia, Sergipe, Ceará, Alagoas, Pará), French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana, E Venezuela (Trinidad), Colombia (Valle del Cauca), Peru, Ecuador

Type locality: “Indiis” (fide LINNAEUS 1758, but in error) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: NRM (NHRM) 33 ?; museum number not given by Dr. C. Edelstam, NRM (NHRM), but listed as No. 33 by Hoge (1960) 
CommentSynonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. The photo of Chironius carinatus in VILLA et al. (1988) is not a Ch. carinatus according to SCOTT (Copeia 1989 [3]: 803).

Type species: Coluber carinatus LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Chironius FITZINGER 1826.

Diagnosis (genus): The genus is easily diagnosed as it is the only Neotropical snake genus with 12 or 10 rows of dorsal scales at midbody. All species of Chironius are diurnal arboreal snakes inhabiting preferably lowland tropical rainforests, but being also found in humid montane forests as well as open-formation biomes (Dixon et al., 1993; Marques et al., 2001; Marques and Sazima, 2003). Klaczko et al. (2014) confirmed the monophyly of Chironius despite contrary results obtained by Pyron et al. (2013).

Subspecies: Ch. carinatus spixi is the only taxon in Chironius that does not undergo an ontogenetic change in eye size, perhaps because it is also the only Chironius species that does not spend the majority of its time in closed-canopy forests (DIXON et al. 1993). Ch. carinatus spixi intergrades with carinatus carinatus in Venezuela (Dixon et al., 1993: 69, 72).

Diagnosis: Dixon et al. 1993: 68 ff (incl. carinatus, spixi)

Distribution: Map: Dixon et al. 1993: 69 (incl. subspecies). BMNH 53.9.26.25 from Guadeloupe, USNM 12136 from Paraguay, and SMNS 5390 from Argentina all represent erroneous locality data (fide DIXON et al. 1993: 74) 
References
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