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Chironius fuscus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesBrown Sipo 
SynonymColuber fuscus LINNAEUS 1758: 222
Coluber saturninus LINNAEUS 1758: 223
Dendrophis viridis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 202
Herpetodryas fuscus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 209
Herpetodryas sebastus COPE 1861: 562
Herpetodryas holochlorus COPE 1876: 178
Herpetodryas holochloris — MALNATE 1971 (in error)
Herpetodryas fuscus — BOULENGER 1894: 75
Herpetodryas vicinus BOULENGER 1915: 660
Chironius fuscus — AMARAL 1929: 161
Chironius fuscus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 60
Chironius cinnamomeus — CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1978 (fide STARACE 1998)
Chironius fuscus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Chironius fuscus — DIXON et al. 1993: 113
Chironius fuscus — STARACE 1998: 150
Chironius fuscus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Chironius fuscus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 160 
DistributionSE Colombia, S Venezuela,
Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana,
E/C Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara, and Sao Paulo, Pará, Mato Grosso), E Peru (Pasco etc.), Ecuador, N Bolivia

Type locality: “Asia” (in error) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: NRM (NHRM) 34 (fide Andersson,1899) (fuscus)
Holotype: ANSP 11543; Peru, Marañon [holochlorus] 
CommentSynonymy after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and DIXON et al. 1993.

Diagnosis: Dorsal scales in 10 (0) or 10-8 (8) rows, anal single; vertebral keels very weak or absent; upper lips light all around; ventrals 144-153; maxillary teeth 41-45 [from BAILEY 1955].

Diagnosis: ‘This snake is separated from all other Chironius species in having a combination of 10 scale rows al midbody, an entire anal plate, paravertebral lscale rows keeled, lower portion of supraIabials light colored, and 39- 51 maxillary teeth [DIXON et al. 1993: 113].

Subspecies: Chironius fuscus leucometapus has been elevated to full species status by Hollis 2006.

Distribution: not in Panama fide WILSON et al. 2010. Map in DIXON et al. 1993: 111.

Reproduction: oviparous. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “fuscus”, meaning dark or dusky. 
References
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929]
  • Ávila, R.W.; R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro. 2011. Herpetofauna of São João da Barra Hydroelectric Plant, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Check List 7 (6): 750-755 - get paper here
  • Bailey, Joseph R. 1955. The snakes of the genus Chironius in southeastern South America. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (571): 1-21
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1915. Descriptions of a new Amphisbaena and a new snake discovered by Dr. H. G. F. Spurrell in southern Colombia. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1915: 659-661. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
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  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Catalogue of the Colubrids in the museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Part 3. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 12 [1860]: 553-566 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1876. Report on the Reptiles brought by Professor James Orton from the middle and upper Amazon and western Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 159-183 [1875] - get paper here
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