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Chironius multiventris SCHMIDT & WALKER, 1943

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSouth American Sipo 
SynonymChironius multiventris multiventris SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943: 282
Chironius multiventris cochrane HOGE and ROMANO 1969
Chironius multiventris — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 61
Chironius multiventris — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Chironius multiventris — HOOGMOED & AVILA-PIRES 1991: 84
Chironius multiventris multiventris — DIXON et al. 1993: 168
Chironius multiventris — STARACE 1998: 153
Chironius multiventris — KORNACKER 1999: 72
Chironius multiventris cochrane — CLAESSEN 2003
Chironius multiventris cochrane — FROTA et al. 2005
Chironius cochranae — HOLLIS 2006
Chironius cochranae — KOK 2010
Chironius multiventris — KLACZKO et al. 2010
Chironius cf. multiventris — CATENAZZI et al. 2013
Chironius multiventris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 161 
DistributionNW Brazil (Paraná [HR 27: 216], Rio de Janeiro), E Peru and Ecuador, SE Colombia, S Venezuela, Bolivia (Beni; elevation 119 m, EMBERT 2002), French Guiana

Type locality: Selvas del Rio Madre de Dios, Dep. Madre de Dios, Peru

not recognized any more:
cochranae: NE Brazil, E Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname. Type locality: Agua Preta, Estado Pará, Brazil [cochranae]. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: FMNH 38250
Holotype: USNM 158103 (not 1581103 as in original description) [cochranae] 
CommentSynonymy: Chironius multiventris foveatus BAILEY 1955 and Chironius multiventris septentrionalis DIXON, WIEST & CEI 1993 are now considered as valid species. However, KLACZKO et al. 2010 synonymized C. m. cochranae with C. multiventris.

Distribution: map in DIXON et al. 1993: 149.

Diagnosis: DIXON et al. 1993: 168 
Etymology“multus” = many or numerous, and “venter” = belly, referring to the relatively high number of ventrals found in this species of Chironius as compared to other species of the genus. 
References
  • Bailey, Joseph R. 1955. The snakes of the genus Chironius in southeastern South America. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (571): 1-21
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Cadle, J. E. 1992. On Colombian snakes. Herpetologica 48: 134-143 - get paper here
  • Castro, T.M. & Teixeira, R.L. 2007. Straßenverkehr als Bedrohung für die Amphibien und Reptilien des Atlantischen Regenwalds in Südost-Brasilien. Eine Fallstudie. Sauria 29 (2): 35-42 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Claessen, H. 2003. De slangen can de Guyana’s. Deel iv. Lacerta 61 (1): 19-27 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Cruz Centeno, Fernanda da; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya & Otavio Augusto Vuolo Marques 2008. Snake assemblage of Ilha de São Sebastião, southeastern Brazil: comparison to mainland. Biota Neotrop. 8(3): 63-68 - get paper here
  • Cunha, O.R. de & Nascimento, R.P do 1982. Ofídios da Amazônia. XV - As espécies de Chironius da Amazônia Oriental (Pará, Amapá e Maranhão) (Ophidia : Colubridae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 46: 139-172 - get paper here
  • Dixon J R; Wiest J A Jr; Cei J M 1993. Revision of the Neotropical snake genus Chironius Fitzinger (Serpentes, Colubridae). MUSEO REGIONALE DI SCIENZE NATURALI MONOGRAFIE (TURIN) 13 :1-280
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp. - get paper here
  • Embert, Dirk 2002. Geographic distribution. Chironius multiventris multiventris (Cobra Cipo Sacaiboia). Herpetological Review 33 (3): 226. - get paper here
  • Fraga R de, Stow AJ, Magnusson WE, Lima AP 2014. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia. PLoS ONE 9(8): e105453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105453 - get paper here
  • Frota, J.G. da; Pedroso dos Santos-Jr, Alfredo; Menezes-Chalkidis, H. de & Guimarães Guedes, A. 2005. AS SERPENTES DA REGIÃO DO BAIXO RIO AMAZONAS, OESTE DO ESTADO DO PARÁ, BRASIL (SQUAMATA). Biociências 13 (2): 211-220
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Hollis, J.L. 2006. Phylogenetics of the genus Chironius Fitzinger 1826 (Serpenes, Colubridae) based on morphology. Herpetologica 62 (4): 435-452 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed M.S.; de Avila-Pires T C S 1991. Annotoated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana. Zoologische Mededelingen 65: 53-88 - get paper here
  • Klaczko, Julia; Fabio de Andrade Machado, Gustavo Scrocchi, and Hussam Zaher 2010. Taxonomic Status of Chironius multiventris and Chironius cochranae (Serpentes). Herpetologica 66 (4): 476-484 - get paper here
  • KOK, PHILIPPE J. R. 2010. A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 (Squamata: Colubridae) from the Pantepui region, northeastern South America. Zootaxa 2611: 31–44 - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Mendes-Pinto, T. J. & S. Marques de Souza 2011. Preliminary assessment of amphibians and reptiles from Floresta Nacional do Trairão, with a new snake record for the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra 47 (4): 199-206 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Pontes, J.A.L.; Figueiredo, J.P., Pontes, RC. and Rocha, C.F.D. 2008. Snakes from the Atlantic Rainforest area of Serra do Mendanha, in Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil: a first approximation to the taxocenosis composition. Braz. J. Biol. 68(3): 601-609 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • ROCHA, CARLOS FREDERICO D.; HELENA G.BERGALLO, JOSÉ P. POMBAL JR., LENA GEISE, MONIQUE VAN SLUYS, RONALDO FERNANDES, ULISSES CARAMASCHI 2004. FAUNA DE ANFÍBIOS, RÉPTEIS E MAMÍFEROS DO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO, SUDESTE DO BRASIL Publ. Avul. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro (104): 3-23 - get paper here
  • Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. & Walker, Warren F. 1943. Peruvian snakes from the University of Arequipa. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Zoology 24 (26): 279-296 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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