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Chironius quadricarinatus BOIE, 1827

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCentral Sipo 
SynonymNatrix sexcarinatus WAGLER 1824: 35
Natrix cinnamomea WAGLER 1824: 20
Erpetodryas 4dricarinatus BOIE 1827: 548
Phyllosira flavescens COPE 1862: 349
Herpetodryas sexcarinatus - BOULENGER 1894: 72
Chironius sexcarinatus — BOULENGER 1894: 346
Chironius sexcarinatus - SERIÉ 1936
Chironius quadricarinatus — BAILEY 1955: 15
Pseustes sexcarinatus - HOGE 1960: 27
Pseustes sexcarinatus - HOGE 1964
Chironius cinnamomeus — HOGE 1964: 53
Chironius cinnamomeus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 59
Chironius quadricarinatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 61
Pseustes sexcarinatus - PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Pseustes sexcarinatus - CEI 1993
Pseustes cinnamomeus — DIXON et al. 1993 (fide HAGEDORN, pers. comm.)
Chironius quadricarinatus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 16
Chironius cinnamomeus — CLAESSEN 2003
Chironius quadricarinatus — HOLLIS 2006
Phrynonax sexcarinatus — JADIN et al. 2013 (by implication)
Chironius quadricarinatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 162
Pseustes sexcarinatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 612 
DistributionBrazil (Campos Cerrados of Estados Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Bahia, and Goias, Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro), Paraguay, C Bolivia (one specimen).

Type locality: not given in original description; restricted to Asuncion, Paraguay by BAILEY 1955.

sexcarinatus: Brazil ? (Para?); Type locality: “Habitat rarus ad fl umen Amazonum” [Brazil, Rio Amazonas] according to the original description and Vanzolini (1981).

cinnamomeus: Surinam, Brazil (Amazonas), Colombia [Castro, pers. comm.], Venezuela (Monagas); Type locality: “Habitat in sylvis fl umini Amazonum confi nibus” [Brazil, Rio Amazonas] according to the original description and Vanzolini (1981). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: RMNH 605
Holotype: ZSM 1744/0 (lost), collected by Spix and Martius expedition to Brazil, 1817-1820 [sexcarinatus]
Types: lost fide HOOGMOED & GRUBER 1983, collected by Spix and Martius expedition to Brazil, 1817-1820 [Natrix cinnamomea] 
CommentSynonymy mostly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and Dixon et al. 1993. The information present in Wagler's description (1824) of sexcarinatus does not allow a safe identification, and it is even possible that P. sexcarinatus is not a valid taxon (Marinus S. Hoogmoed, pers. comm., cited in Costa & Bernils 2015). Two recent studies cite the species for Mato Grosso (Kawashita-Ribeiro et al., 2011) and Pará (Maschio et al., 2012), but in both cases, identification problems seem to be involved (Costa & Bernils 2015). We follow Dixon et al. 1993 who consider sexcarinatus as a synonym of Chironius quadricarinatus which is also followed by Jadin et al. 2013. Giraudo & Scrocchi (2002) state that “Dixon et al. (1993) include Herpetodryas sexcarinatus and Chironius sexcarinatus in the synonymy of Chironius quadricarinatus maculoventris. However, this is not true; Dixon et al. assigned it explicitly to quadricarinatus, not mentioning sexcarinatus in their maculoventris account.
Boulenger 1894: 72 considered Pseustes cinnamomeus as a synonym of Herpetodryas sexcarinatus. Pseustes cinnamomeus has been considered as a junior synonym of Chironius scurrulus (fide Dixon et al 1993) although its identity remains unclear. Natrix cinnamomea is listed as species inquirenda by WALLACH et al. 2014, similar to HOOGMOED & GRUBER 1983 who considered it as a nomen dubium.

Diagnosis (quadricarinatus). Dorsals in 12 rows at midbody; head and neck reddish brown; body anteriorly bluish gray changing before mid-body to reddish brown; usually more than 2 dorsal rows keeled; usually 2 posterior temporals and most frequently 8 upper labials; maxillary teeth 26-32 [from BAILEY 1955]. It also has 141-161 ventrals, no vetral stripe etc. [added by DIXON, WIEST & CEI 1993: 178].

Diagnosis (quadricarinatus quadricarinatus): This subspecies of C. quadricarinatus has uniform yellow ventrals and subcaudals and no bold postocular slripe, versus brown speckling on yellow-olive ventrals and a distinct dark postocular stripe in C. q. maculoventris [DIXON, WIEST & CEI 1993: 185]

Distribution: Phrynonax sexcarinatus is not in Venezuela fide NATERA-MUMAW et al. 2015. COSTA & BERNILS 2015 excluded this species from their checklist of Brazilian reptiles because 1) the validity of this name is questionable; 2) recent records from Brazil lack vouchers or may be misidentified. 
Etymology“quadri-” (= four) and “carina” = keel, alludes to the high number of keeled dorsal scale rows in this species. 
References
  • Argólo, António Jorge Suzart 1998. Geographic distribution. Chironius quadricarinatus quadricarinatus. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 175 - get paper here
  • Bailey, Joseph R. 1955. The snakes of the genus Chironius in southeastern South America. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (571): 1-21
  • Boie, F. 1827. Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien, 1. Lieferung: Ophidier. Isis van Oken 20: 508-566. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1894. List of reptiles and batachians collected by Dr. T. Bohls near Asuncion, Paraguay. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 13: 342-348 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Hugo Cabral  2015. The genus Chironius (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Paraguay: composition, distribution, and morphology. Basic and Applied Herpetology 29: - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
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  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Catalogues of the reptiles obtained during the explorations of the Parana Paraguay, Vermejo and Uruguay rivers, by Capt. Thos. J. Page, U.S.N.; and of those procured by Lieut. N. Michier, U. S. Top. Eng., Commander of the expedition conducting the su Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1862: 346-359. - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique Caldeira & Renato Silveira Bérnils 2015. Répteis brasileiros: lista de espécies 2015 Herpetologia Brasileira 4 (3): 75-93
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  • Freitas, M.A.; D. Veríssimo; V. Uhlig. 2012. Squamate Reptiles of the central Chapada Diamantina, with a focus on the municipality of Mucugê, state of Bahia, Brazil. Check List 8(1):16-22 - get paper here
  • Frota, J.G. da; Pedroso dos Santos-Jr, Alfredo; Menezes-Chalkidis, H. de & Guimarães Guedes, A. 2005. AS SERPENTES DA REGIÃO DO BAIXO RIO AMAZONAS, OESTE DO ESTADO DO PARÁ, BRASIL (SQUAMATA). Biociências 13 (2): 211-220
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Hoge, Alphonse Richard 1964. Mem. Inst. Butantan 30 [1960-1962]: 53, 59, 68 - get paper here
  • Hollis, J.L. 2006. Phylogenetics of the genus Chironius Fitzinger 1826 (Serpenes, Colubridae) based on morphology. Herpetologica 62 (4): 435-452 - get paper here
  • Jadin, R. C., Burbrink, F. T., Rivas, G. A., Vitt, L. J., Barrio-Amorós, C. L. and Guralnick, R. P. 2013. Finding arboreal snakes in an evolutionary tree: phylogenetic placement and systematic revision of the Neotropical birdsnakes. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 52 (3): 257–264; doi: 10.1111/jzs.12055 - get paper here
  • Kacoliris F.P.; Berkunsky I. & Williams J. 2006. Herpetofauna of Impenetrable, Argentinean Great Chaco. Phyllomedusa 5 (2): 149-158 - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Pinto, Roberta Richard; Marques, Otavio Augusto Vuolo; Fernandes, Ronaldo 2010. Reproductive biology of two sympatric colubrid snakes, Chironius flavolineatus and Chironius quadricarinatus, from the Brazilian Cerrado domain. Amphibia-Reptilia 31 (4): 463-473 - get paper here
  • Santos, D.L.; S.P. Andrade; E.P. Victor-Jr.; W. Vaz-Silva 2014. Amphibians and reptiles from southeastern Goiás, Central Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 131-148 - get paper here
  • Scott, Norman J.;Lovett, Jonny Wayne 1975. A collection of reptiles and amphibians from the Chaco of Paraguay. The University of Connecticut Occasional Papers, Biological Series 2 (16): 257-266
  • Wagler,J. 1824. Serpentum Brasiliensium species novae, ou histoire naturelle des espèces nouvelles de serpens. In: Jean de Spix, Animalia nova sive species novae. [NAtrix bahiensis: 27,. Monaco, Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, vii + 75 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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