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Cnemaspis biocellata GRISMER, CHAN, NASIR & SUMONTHA, 2008

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Twin-spot Rock Gecko 
SynonymCnemaspis biocellata GRISMER, CHAN, NASIR & SUMONTHA 2008
Cnemaspis siamensis —MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997:215
Cnemaspis siamensis — COX et al. 1998:91
Cnemaspis biocellata — GRISMER 2011
Cnemaspis biocellata — GRISMER et al. 2014: 34 
DistributionW Malaysia (Perlis), Thailand (fide Ampai et al. 2020)

Type locality: 37 m elevation from Kuala Perlis, Perlis, Peninsular Malaysia (06°24.437N 100°08.564E).  
TypesHolotype: ZRC 2.6693, adult male, collected on 3 March 2008 by Chan Kin Onn, L. Lee Grismer, and Rick Gregory. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cnemaspis biocellata differs from all other Southeast Asian Cnemaspis in having the unique combination of a maximum SVL of 40.1 mm; 6–10 supralabials; 5–7 infralabials; scales of anterior portion of forearm weakly keeled; ventral scales smooth; no femoral pores; 8–12 precloacal pores; no row of linearly arranged tubercles on flanks; paravertebral, longitudinal rows of caudal tubercles present but no lateral caudal rows; smooth subcaudals with an enlarged median row; one or two cloacal tubercles; no large, shield-like subtibial or submetatarsal scales; 29–37 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; no distinct, large, dark spots on neck and back alternating with transverse, white markings; no white markings on flanks alternating with dark blotches; no dark bands encircling tail; two distinct, white, well defined occipital ocelli; black occipital band bordering a series of closely spaced, large, white to yellow spots which form a nuchal band extending from posterior margin of one eye to the other eye; small, black shoulder patch enclosing a single white to yellow ocellus; shoulder patches not meeting middorsally; posterior 25% of tail not white. 
CommentDistribution: See map in Grismer et al. 2014: 18 (Fig. 4). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet biocellata is derived from the Latin prefix “bi-” meaning “two” and the Latin ocellus meaning “a little eye” and refers to the two small occipital eyespots.  
  • Ampai N, Wood Jr PL, Stuart BL, Aowphol A 2020. Integrative taxonomy of the rock-dwelling gecko Cnemaspis siamensis complex (Squamata, Gekkonidae) reveals a new species from Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand. ZooKeys 932: 129-159 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Chan K. Onn; Nasir, N. & Sumontha, M. 2008. A new species of karst dwelling gecko (genus Cnemaspis Strauch 1887) from the border region of Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 1875: 51–68 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; MONTRI SUMONTHA, MICHAEL COTA, JESSE L. GRISMER, PERRY L. WOOD, JR., OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS & KIRATI KUNYA 2010. A revision and redescription of the rock gecko Cnemaspis siamensis (Taylor 1925) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Thailand with descriptions of seven new species. Zootaxa 2576: 1–55 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; NORHAYATI AHMAD, CHAN KIN ONN, DAICUS BELABUT, MUIN, M. A., PERRY L. WOOD, JR, & JESSE L. GRISMER 2009. Two new diminutive species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 2019: 40-56 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; P. L. WOOD, JR., SHAHRUL ANUAR, H. R. DAVIS, A. J. COBOS & M. L. MURDOCH 2016. A new species of karst forest Bent-toed Gecko (genus Cyrtodactylus Gray) not yet threatened by foreign cement companies and a summary of Peninsular Malaysia’s endemic karst forest herpetofauna and the need for its conservation. Zootaxa 4061 (1): 001–017 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY JR L. WOOD, SHAHRUL ANUAR, AWAL RIYANTO, NORHAYATI AHMAD, MOHD A. MUIN, MONTRI SUMONTHA, JESSE L. GRISMER, CHAN KIN ONN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, OLIVIER S. A. PAUWELS 2014. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Zootaxa 3880 (1): 001–147 - get paper here
  • GROSSMANN, W. 2022. Supplementary information on the fauna of the Don Din karst cave, with notes on the geckofauna of Thale Ban National Park in Satun, southern Thailand. Sauria 44 (1): 33-44 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, H.N., Hung, C., Yang, M. et al. 2020. Sympatric competitors have driven the evolution of temporal activity patterns in Cnemaspis geckos in Southeast Asia. Sci Rep 10: 27 - get paper here
  • Onn, Chan Kin; L. L. Grismer, Shahrul Anuar, E. Quah, M.A. Muin, A.E. Savage, J.L. Grismer, Norhayati Ahmad, A.C. Remigio, L.F. Greer 2010. A new endemic rock Gecko Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Gunung Jerai, Kedah, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 2576: 59–68 - get paper here
  • ONN, CHAN KIN; L. LEE. GRISMER, DIONYSIUS S. SHARMA, DAICUS BELABUT, and NORHAYATI AHMA 2009. New herpetofaunal records for Perlis State Park and adjacent areas. Malayan Nature Journal 61 (4): 255 - 262
  • QUAH, EVAN S. H.; PERRY L. JR. WOOD, M.S. SHAHRUL ANUAR, MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2020. A new species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia with an updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Tuba Island. Zootaxa 4767 (1): 138–160 - get paper here
  • WOOD, PERRY JR. L.; EVAN S.H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR M.S., MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2013. A new species of lowland karst dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3691 (5): 538–558 - get paper here
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