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Cnemaspis grismeri WOOD, QUAH, ANUAR MS & MUIN, 2013

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Grismer’s Rock Gecko
Malay: Cicak Batu Grismer 
SynonymCnemaspis grismeri WOOD, QUAH, ANUAR MS & MUIN 2013
Cnemaspis mcguirei — GRISMER 2011: 349
Cnemaspis grismeri — GRISMER et al. 2014: 78 
DistributionMalaysia (Perak: Lenggong Valley)

Type locality: Gua Asar, Bukit Kepala Gajah limestone massif, Lenggong, Perak, Malaysia (5°07.53’N, 100°58.82’E) at 78 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: ZRC 2.6989, adult male, collected on 7 October 2012 by Evan S.H. Quah and Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah. Paratypes. ZRC 2.6990, LSUHC 9969, 9970, 9972 and 9973 were collected on 5 November 2010 from the same locality as the holotype by Evan S.H. Quah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah and Mohd Abdul Muin. LSUHC 10941–10944 were collected on 7 July 2012 by the same collectors at the same locality. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cnemaspis grismeri sp. nov. differs from all other Southeast Asia species of Cnemaspis in having the unique combination of adult males reaching 48.8 mm SVL, adult females reaching 50.6 mm SVL; 8–9 supralabials; 7–9 infralabials; large, lateral postmentals separated at midline by one or two smaller postmentals; forearm, subtibials, ventrals, subcaudals, and dorsal tubercles keeled; 27–32 paravertebral tubercles; tubercles on flanks, relatively small and not linearly arranged; tubercles within lateral caudal furrow; ventrolateral caudal tubercles present anteriorly; median subcaudal row not enlarged; no keeled, median subcaudal row of enlarged scales; two or three postcloacal tubercles; continuous row of eight to ten precloacal pores; subtibial scales not shield-like; no enlarged submetatarsal scales; 25–31 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; no distinct, large, dark spots on neck; dark shoulder patch enclosing two white to yellow ocelli; prominent, wide, yellow to white, postscapular band; yellowish bars on flanks; distinct, dark, caudal bands present posteriorly; subcaudal region pigmented, not immaculate. Scalation and body size differences are summarized across all Southeast Asian species in TABLE 1 (Wood et al. 2013).

Comparisons. Cnemaspis grismeri sp. nov. differs from all other species of Cnemaspis in numerous aspects of scalation and color pattern as summarized in TABLE 1. It is most similar to its sister species C. mcguirei (L. Grismer et al. unpublished) but differs in being smaller (maximum SVL=50.6 mm in C. grismeri sp. nov. versus SVL=65.1 mm in C. mcguirei) and having a significantly lower mean number of subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe (28.8 versus 32.5; p<0.01). Additionally, the lower, anterior shoulder spot is less prominent and the lateral baring is generally more distinct (Figs. 2 & 3). Cnemapsis grismeri sp. nov. is the sister species of C. mcguirei who are separated by a 7.3–11.7% sequence divergence in the mitochondrial gene ND2. 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThis species is named in honor of Prof. Dr. L. Lee Grismer of La Sierra University, Riverside, California, USA for his tremendous contributions to the advancement of the field of herpetology in Malaysia. Coincidentally, Cnemaspis grismeri sp. nov. is the closest relative of C. mcguirei, a species that Dr. Grismer had named in honor of his close friend and colleague Prof. Dr. Jimmy A. McGuire of the University of California Berkeley, USA. 
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; P. L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S. H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR, EHWAN NGADI & NORHAYATI AHMAD 2015. A new insular species of Rock Gecko (Cnemaspis Boulenger) from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3985 (2): 203–218 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; P. L. WOOD, JR., SHAHRUL ANUAR, H. R. DAVIS, A. J. COBOS & M. L. MURDOCH 2016. A new species of karst forest Bent-toed Gecko (genus Cyrtodactylus Gray) not yet threatened by foreign cement companies and a summary of Peninsular Malaysia’s endemic karst forest herpetofauna and the need for its conservation. Zootaxa 4061 (1): 001–017 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY JR L. WOOD, SHAHRUL ANUAR, AWAL RIYANTO, NORHAYATI AHMAD, MOHD A. MUIN, MONTRI SUMONTHA, JESSE L. GRISMER, CHAN KIN ONN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, OLIVIER S. A. PAUWELS 2014. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Zootaxa 3880 (1): 001–147 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD JR., MAKETAB MOHAMED, KIN ONN CHAN, HEATHER M. HEINZ, ALEX S-I. SUMARLI, JACOB A. CHAN, ARIEL I. LOREDO 2013. A new species of karst-adapted Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a threatened karst region in Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3746 (3): 463–472 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Nguyen, H.N., Hung, C., Yang, M. et al. 2020. Sympatric competitors have driven the evolution of temporal activity patterns in Cnemaspis geckos in Southeast Asia. Sci Rep 10: 27 - get paper here
  • WOOD, PERRY JR. L.; EVAN S.H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR M.S., MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2013. A new species of lowland karst dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3691 (5): 538–558 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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