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Cnemaspis harimau CHAN, GRISMER, ANUAR, QUAH, MUIN, SAVAGE, GRISMER, AHMAD, REMIGIO & GREER, 2010

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesTiger Rock Gecko 
SynonymCnemaspis harimau CHAN, GRISMER, ANUAR, QUAH, MUIN, SAVAGE, GRISMER, AHMAD, REMIGIO & GREER 2010
Cnemaspis harimau — GRISMER 2011
Cnemaspis harimau — GRISMER et al. 2014: 68 
DistributionNW Peninsular Malaysia (Gunung Jerai, Kedah)

Type locality: 601 m elevation from Sungai Badak (=Badak river), Gunung Jerai, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia (N 05°48′59′′, E 100°23′53′′). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: ZRC 2.6894, adult male collected on 17 March 2010 by Chan Kin Onn, Lee Grismer, Jesse Grismer, Anna Savage, Shahrul Anuar, Mohd. Abdul Muin, and Evan Quah at 2030 hrs. Paratypes. Collection locality and collector of the paratypes is the same as that of the holotype. The paratypes were collected between 2030 and 2130 hrs. ZRC 2.6897 (female; 16 March 2010); LSUHC 9669 (male; 17 March 2010); and ZRC 2.6895, 2.6896, LSUHC 9665, 9667 (female; 17 March 2010). 
CommentComparisons. Cnemaspis harimau can be differentiated from all other Sundaland congeners except C. affinis, C. biocellata, C. kumpoli, C. mcguirei, C. pseudomcguirei, and C. shahruli in having a black shoulder patch with a white or yellow ocellus anteriorly. It differs from C. biocellata by having a single, shoulder ocellus instead of two ocelli; four precloacal pores vs. 8–12; precloacal pores separated vs. continuous; keeled vs. smooth subcaudals; and 25–30 vs. 29–37 subdigital lamellae under the fourth toe; from C. kumpoli by having a maximum SVL of 40.7 mm vs. 63.0 mm; keeled vs. smooth ventral scales; four vs. 7–8 precloacal pores; 18–20 vs. 29–35 paravertebral tubercles; keeled vs. smooth subcaudals; 25–30 vs. 34–41 subdigital lamellae under the fourth toe; from C. mcguirei in having a maximum SVL of 40.7 mm vs. 65.0 mm; four vs. 5–10 precloacal pores; 18–20 vs. 26–32 paravertebral tubercles; the absence vs. presence of tubercles within the lateral caudal furrow; and 25–30 vs. 30–35 subdigital lamellae under the fourth toe; from C. pseudomcguirei in having 18–20 vs. 26–32 paravertebral tubercles; mental bordered posteriorly by two enlarged lateral postmentals which are separated by a single, small azygous scale vs. six small postmentals; precloacal pores separated vs. continous; caudal tubercles encircle vs. do not encircle tail; the absence vs. presence of tubercles within the lateral, caudal furrow; and having vs. lacking yellow bands on the flanks from C. shahruli in having a maximum SVL of 40.7 mm vs. 36.5 mm; four vs. zero precloacal pores; and caudal tubercles encircle vs. do not encircle tail. Cnemaspis harimau is most similar in appearance to its sister species C. affinis, but differs by having a maximum SVL of 40.7 mm vs. 50.8 mm; 18–20 vs. 20–28 paravertebral tubercles; lateral postmentals separated by one vs. more than one (usually three) smaller, azygous scales; caudal tubercles encircle vs. do not encircle tail; lateral caudal tubercles on anterior 25% of tail highly spinose and protruding vs. slightly spinose; and an overall higher degree of scale keeling (most prominent on the tail).

Diagnosis. Maximum SVL 40.7 mm; nine or 10 supralabials; nine or 10 infralabials; ventral scales keeled; four discontinuous, pore-bearing precloacal scales with round pores; 18–20 paravertebral tubercles; tubercles not linearly arranged, present on flanks; tubercles in lateral caudal furrows; ventrolateral caudal tubercles absent anteriorly; lateral row of caudal tubercles present; caudal tubercles encircling tail; all subcaudals keeled, no enlarged median scale row; two or three postcloacal tubercles on each side of tail base; no enlarged femoral or subtibial scales; subtibials keeled; no enlarged submetatarsal scales on first toe; 25–30 subdigital fourth toe lamellae; gular region and throat yellow in males; single ocellus in shoulder region in males; yellow postscapular band variable; transverse yellow bars on flanks (Tables 6,7 in Grismer et al. 2014).

Habitat: granite boulders and at the base of tree trunks near the boulders during the day and night. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, harimau means tiger in the Malay language and is in reference to the yellow banding on the flanks of this species which are arbitrarily analogous to the banding on a tiger. Additionally, the year 2010 coincides with the Chinese zodiac year of the tiger. 
References
  • Chan Kin Onn, L. L. Grismer, Shahrul Anuar, E. Quah, M.A. Muin, A.E. Savage, J.L. Grismer, Norhayati Ahmad, A.C. Remigio, L.F. Greer 2010. A new endemic rock Gecko Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Gunung Jerai, Kedah, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 2576: 59–68 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; P. L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S. H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR, EHWAN NGADI & NORHAYATI AHMAD 2015. A new insular species of Rock Gecko (Cnemaspis Boulenger) from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3985 (2): 203–218
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY JR L. WOOD, SHAHRUL ANUAR, AWAL RIYANTO, NORHAYATI AHMAD, MOHD A. MUIN, MONTRI SUMONTHA, JESSE L. GRISMER, CHAN KIN ONN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, OLIVIER S. A. PAUWELS 2014. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Zootaxa 3880 (1): 001–147 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD JR., MAKETAB MOHAMED, KIN ONN CHAN, HEATHER M. HEINZ, ALEX S-I. SUMARLI, JACOB A. CHAN, ARIEL I. LOREDO 2013. A new species of karst-adapted Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a threatened karst region in Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3746 (3): 463–472
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • WOOD, PERRY JR. L.; EVAN S.H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR M.S., MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2013. A new species of lowland karst dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3691 (5): 538–558 - get paper here
 
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