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Cnemaspis kandiana (KELAART, 1852)

IUCN Red List - Cnemaspis kandiana - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Sauria (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Kandy Day Gecko, Kandy Rock Gecko
G: Ceylon-Dünnfingergecko 
SynonymGymnodactylus kandianus KELAART 1852: 186
Gymnodactylus malabaricus JERDON 1854: 469
Gymnodactylus mysoriensis JERDON 1853
Gonatodes kandianus — BOULENGER 1885: 68
Gonatodes kandianus — DE ROOIJ 1915: 23
Gymnodactylus humei THEOBALD 1876: 89
Gonatodes mysoriensis — BOULENGER 1885: 68
Cnemaspis mysoriensis — SMITH 1935: 72
Cnemaspis kandiana — SMITH 1935: 73
Cnemaspis mysoriensis — TAYLOR 1963: 738
Cnemaspis tropidogaster BOULENGER 1885 (fide WERMUTH 1965)
Cnemaspis kandiana — KLUGE 1993
Cnemaspis kandiana — RÖSLER 1995: 103
Cnemaspis kandianus — COX et al. 1998: 90
Cnemaspis mysoriensis — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 23
Cnemaspis (Cnemaspis) kandiana — RÖSLER 2000: 62 
DistributionSri Lanka (see comments)

Type locality: Mountains of Kandy, Sri Lanka. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 60.3.17.1066, 80.2.2.119, 53.4.1.1 (further syntypes in NMSL fide MENDIS WICKRAMASINGHE & MUNINDRADASA 2007). 
CommentSynonymy mainly after KLUGE 1993. Some authors (like DERANIYAGALA 1953) distinguish three subspecies: kandiana, gracilis, tropidogaster.

Many populations previously associated with C. kandiana have now been relegated to other species. Thus its distribution has been restricted to Sri Lanka (see DAS 2005 and MENDIS WICKRAMASINGHE & MUNINDRADASA 2007 for details).

Diagnosis: A small-sized Cnemaspis (snout to vent length 28–30 mm in an adult males), which can be distinguished from all known congeners by the following combination of characters: Postmentals separated by a small scale; nostrils are not in contact with first supralabial; six supra labials to angle of mid-orbit position and end of jaw at 8–9 supra labials; 28 interorbitals; throat scales smooth, intermixed with keels; 62–64 dorsal tubercles; dorsal tubercles small, carinated, rarely intermixed with trihedrals, rounded, pentagonal or hexagonal; spine-like tubercles present on flanks; larger scales on the lower part of flank; ventral tibia weakly keeled; gular scales keeled; midventrals 22–24; ventral smooth and imbricate; mid subcaudals keeled; 3 prea- nal pores; 4–5 femoral pores on each side; 10–12 subdigital lamellae and 4 basal lamellae in the 4th finger; 11– 12 subdigital lamellae and 5–6 basal lamellae in the 4th toe.

C. kandiana is congener very closely with C. kumarasinghei sp. nov. and also with C. retigalensis sp. nov. from morphological characters. However, C. kandiana can easily be distinguished from both by having keels in gula scales, and from C. kumarasinghei by midventral and subcaudal scale counts and finger distal sub-digital formula and from C. retigalensis by the absence of preanal pores, interorbital and temporal counts, and also from morphometric analysis.

Original description in Amarasinghe et al. 2009. 
References
  • Amarasinghe, A. A. T., A. M. Bauer, I. Ineich, J. Rudge, M. M. Bahir & D. E. Gabadage 2009. The original descriptions and figures of Sri Lankan gekkonid lizards (Squamata: Gekkonidae) of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Taprobanica 1 (2): 83-106 - get paper here
  • Annandale, N. 1905. Contributions to Oriental herpetology l. The lizards of the Andamans, with the description of a new gecko and a note on the reproduced tail in Ptychozoon homalocephalum. J. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 73 (suppl.): 12-22 - get paper here
  • Annandale, N. 1909. Report on a small collection of lizards from Travancore. Records of the Indian Museum 3: 253-257 - get paper here
  • Beddome,R.H. 1870. Descriptions of some new lizards from the Madras Presidency. Madras Monthly J. Med. Sci. 1: 30-35
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das I 1994. Cnemaspis gordongekkoi, a new gecko from Lombok, Indonesia, and the biogeography of oriental species of Cnemaspis (Squamata: Sauria: Gekkonidae). Hamadryad 18: 1-9 [1993] - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2005. Revision of the Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from the Mentawai and Adjacent Archipelagos off Western Sumatra, Indonesia, with the Description of Four New Species. Journal of Herpetology 39 (2): 233–247 - get paper here
  • Das, I. & Grismer, L.L. 2003. Two new species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the Seribuat Archipelago, Pahang and Johor States, West Malaysia. Herpetologica 59 (4): 544-552 - get paper here
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp.
  • Dring J C M 1979. Amphibians and reptiles from northern Trengganu, Malaysia, with descriptions of two new geckos: Cnemaspis and Cyrtodactylus. Bulletin of the British Museum (NATURAL HISTORY) ZOOLOGY 34 (5) 1979: 181-241 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. & Das, I. 2006. A new species of gekkonid lizard of the genus Cnemaspis STRAUCH 1887 from Pulau Pemanggil, Johor, West Malaysia. Herpetological Natural History 10 (1): 1-7
  • Inger R F; Marx H; Koshy M 1984. An undescribed species of gekkonid lizard (Cnemaspis) from India with comments on the status of C. tropidogaster. Herpetologica 40 (2): 149-154 - get paper here
  • Jerdon,T.C. 1854. Catalogue of the Reptiles inhabiting the Peninsula of India. Part 1. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal xxii [1853]: 462-479 - get paper here
  • Kelaart, E.E 1852. Ceylon Reptiles. In: Prodomus Faunae Zeylanicae. Vol. 1. Part 3. Colombo, pp. 143-187.
  • Kluge A G 1993. Gekkonoid Lizard Taxonomy. International Gecko Society, San Diego, 245 pp.
  • Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Batuwita, Sudesh & Pethiyagoda, Rohan 2007. A taxonomic revision of the Sri Lankan day-geckos (Reptilia: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis), with description of new species from Sri Lanka and southern India. Zeylanica 7 (1): 9-122
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Rösler, Herbert 1995. Geckos der Welt - Alle Gattungen. Urania, Leipzig, 256 pp.
  • Smith,M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Somaweera, R. & Somaweera, N. 2009. Lizards of Sri Lanka: a colour guide with field keys. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 304 pp.
  • Stoliczka,F. 1873. Notes on some Andamese and Nicobarese Reptiles, with the descriptions of three new species of lizards. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 42: 162-169 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1953. A review of the lizards of Ceylon. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 35 (12): 1525-1585 - get paper here
  • Theobald,W. 1876. Descriptive catalogue of the reptiles of British India. Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta: xiii + 238 pp.
  • VIDANAPATHIRANA, DULAN RANGA; M. D. GEHAN RAJEEV, NETHU WICKRAMASINGHE, SAMANTHA SURANJAN FERNANDO & 2014. Cnemaspis rammalensis sp. nov., Sri Lanka’s largest day-gecko (Sauria: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis) from Rammalakanda Man and Biosphere Reserve in southern Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 3755 (3): 273–286
  • Wickramasinghe, L.J. MENDIS; & D. A. I. MUNINDRADASA 2007. Review of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Sauria: Gekkonidae) in Sri Lanka with the description of five new species. Zootaxa 1490: 1-63 - get paper here
  • Ziesmann, S.; Janzen, P. & Klaas, P. 2007. Die Vielfalt der Geckos [Sri Lankas]. Draco 7 (30): 38-44 - get paper here
 
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