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Cnemaspis muria RIYANTO, MUNIR, MARTAMENGGALA, FITRIANA & HAMIDY, 2019

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Muria Rock Gecko
Indonesian: Cicak Batu Gunung Muria 
SynonymCnemaspis muria RIYANTO, MUNIR, MARTAMENGGALA, FITRIANA & HAMIDY 2019 
DistributionIndonesia (Java)

Type locality: river bank at Gunung Muria, Kajar (village), Dawe (District), Kudus (Regency), Jawa Tengah (Province), Indonesia (06o39’47.4” S; 110o53’22.9” E; elevation 599 m asl  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. MZB Lace. 14571 (Fig. 2A), an adult male, collected on 11 August 2018 by Awal Riyanto, Misbahul Munir, Rubby Alfian, Lianita Rarasandy and Rega D. Ganiarta.
Paratypes. MZB. Lace. 14564 (Fig. 2B), an adult female; MZB. Lace. 14565–70, six adult males from the same locality as holotype (06 ̊39’33.5” S; 110 ̊53’20.6” E; elevation 650 m asl), collected on 17 July 2018 by Andri I.S. Martamenggala, and MZB. Lace.14572 (Fig. 2C), an adult male, with the same data as holotype (6°39’36.9” S; 110o53’20.0” E; elevation 646 m asl). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Cnemaspis muria sp. nov. differs from its congeners in Southeast Asian by the following combination characters: (1) maximum SVL of at least 58.1 mm in males and 56.9 mm in females, (2) a pair of sharpe conical tubercle clusters on occiput, (3) nuchal loop bearing a bridge of warts from the upper tympanum to the nape and made in a curved line, (4) dorsal tubercles not linearly arranged, (5) 18–20 paravertebral tubercles, (6) postmental separated by a single scale, (7) gular, pectoral, abdominal, subantebrachial, subbrachial, subfemoral, subtibial and subcaudal scales keeled, (8) no tubercles on lower flank, (9) both precloacal and femoral pores absent, (10) enlarged submetacarpal scales present at the base of first finger, (11) enlarged submetatarsal present at the base of first toe , (12) 38–40 ventral scales, (13) 31–35 lamellae under fourth toe, (14) two postcloacal tubercles on each side, (15) enlarged median subcaudal scale row present, (16) caudal tubercles encircling tail, (17) sexually dimorphic in color pattern: males with a yellow belly and the proximal subcaudal surfaces yellow becoming white distally, female with a white belly with proximal subcaudal surface of alternating white and black rings and black coloration distally.

Comparison. Cnemaspis muria sp. nov. has numerous diagnostic characters states that separate it from congeners from the Malay Peninsula, adjacent small islands, Borneo, and Sumatra. Summary comparisons of the new species with other species of the Southern Sunda clade of the C. kendalli group are presented in Tables 4 and Table 5. The new species is easily distinguished from its sister taxon, C. bidongensis, by the presence of single median row of keeled subcaudals (versus smooth), an enlarged submetacarpal scales at the base of first finger (versus absence) and an enlarged submetatarsal scale at the base of first toe (versus absence); from C. baueri it is distinguished by the presence of an enlarged submetatarsal on the first toe (versus absence), absence of precloacal pores (versus presence), and presence of enlarged median row of subcaudals (versus absent); from C. kendallii it may be differentiated by the absence of tubercles on lower flank (versus presence), presence of enlarged submetatarsal scales on the first toe (versus absence), dorsal tubercles not linearly arranged (versus linearly arranged), ventral scales tricarinate (versus unicarinate) and single median row of keeled subcaudals (versus subcaudals not keeled); from C. mumpuniae by the absence (versus presence) of tubercles on the lower flank and presence (versus absence) of enlarged submetatarsal scales on the first toe; from C. pemanggilensis Grismer & Das, 2005, by a lower number of PVT (18–20 versus 30–37), presence of enlarged submetatarsal on the first toe (versus absence); from C. peninsularis Grismer, Wood, Anuar, Riyanto, Ahmad, Muin, Sumontha, Grismer, Chan, Quah & Pauwels, 2014 by the absence of tubercles on lower flank (versus presence), presence of single median row of keeled subcaudals (versus absence) and enlarged submetatarsal on the first toe (versus absence); and from C. sundainsula by absence of tubercles on lower flank (versus presence), tubercles arranged not linearly (versus linearly arranged), lower number of PVT (18–20 versus 26–37), presence of keeled subcaudal scales (versus smooth subcaudal scales), keeled enlarged median subcaudal row (versus smooth), and caudal tubercles encircling tail (versus not encircling).
Cnemaspis muria sp. nov. may be easily distinguished from C. purnamai Riyanto, Hamidy, Sidik & Gunalen, 2017, newly described from Belitung Island, by the presence of the nuchal loop bearing a bridge of warts extend- ing from upper tympanum to the nape in a curved line (versus this configuration lacking) and a greater number of lamellae under the fourth toe (31–35 versus 22–24); and from C. rajabasa by the presence of an enlarged median subcaudal row (versus median row not enlarged) and enlarged submetatarsal under first toe (versus lacks enlarged submetatarsal under first toe); and from C. sundagekko Grismer, Wood, Anuar, Riyanto, Ahmad, Muin, Sumontha, Grismer, Chan, Quah & Pauwels, 2014, by the presence of single median row of enlarged keeled subcaudals (versus median row not enlarged), and an enlarged submetatarsal scale on the first toe (versus absent).
The ventral scales in the new species are keeled, whereas the following species have smooth ventral scales: Cnemaspis andalas, C. biocellata Grismer, Chan, Nurolhuda & Sumontha, 2008, C. flavigaster Chan & Grismer, 2008, C. kumpoli Taylor, 1963, C. monachorum Grismer, Ahmad, Chan, Belabut, Muin, Wood & Ahmad, 2009, C. minang, and C. tapanuli.
The lack of precloacal pores in the new species distinguish it from all the following species which have precloa- cal pores: C. andalas, C. affinis (Stoliczka, 1870), C. argus Dring, 1979, C. bayuensis Grismer, Grismer, Wood & Chan, 2008, C. bidongensis, C. biocellata, C. hangus Grismer, Wood, Anuar, Riyanto, Ahmad, Muin, Sumontha, Grismer, Chan, Quah & Pauwels, 2014, C. flavigaster, C. dezwani, C. dringi, C. flavolineata (Nicholls, 1949), C. gismeri Wood, Quah, Anuar & Muin, 2013, C. harimau Chan, Grismer, Shahrul, Quah, Muin, Savage, Grismer, Ah- mad, Remegio & Greer, 2010, C. karsticola Grismer, Grismer, Wood & Chan, 2008, C. kumpoli, C. leucura, C. limi Das & Grismer, 2003, C. minang, C. mcguirei Grismer, Grismer, Wood & Chan, 2008, C. modiglianii, C. monocho- rum, C. narathiwatensis Grismer, Sumontha, Cota, Grismer, Wood, Pauwels & Kunya, 2010, C. nigrida, C. pagai, C. paripari C. perhentianensis Grismer & Chan, 2008, C. pseudomcguirei Grismer, Ahmad, Chan, Belabut, Muin, Wood & Ahmad, 2009, C. selamatkanmerapoh Grismer, Wood, Mohamed, Chan, Heinz, Sumarli, Chan & Loredo, 2013, C. stongensis Grismer, Wood, Anuar, Riyanto, Ahmad, Muin, Sumontha, Grismer, Chan, Quah & Pauwels, 2014, C. tapanuli, C. temiah Grismer, Wood, Anuar, Riyanto, Ahmad, Muin, Sumontha, Grismer, Chan, Quah & Pauwels, 2014 and C. whittenorum.
Cnemaspis muria sp. nov. possesses enlarged submetatarsal scales on the first toe which distinguishes it from all the following species which lack this character: C. affinis, C. argus C. bayuensis, C. biocellata, C. flavolin- eata, C. grismeri, C. hangus, C. harimau, C. karsticola, C. limi, C. mashuriae, C. mcguirei, C. narathiwatensis, C. pemanggilensis, C. perhentianensis, C. selamatkanmerapoh, C. shahruli Grismer, Chan, Quah, Mohd, Savage, Grismer, Ahmad, Greer & Remegio, 2010, C. stongensis, C. tapanuli, and C. temiah.
The new species possesses caudal tubercles encircling the tail which differentiates it from Cnemaspis affinis, C. andalas, C. argus, C. bayuensis, C. biocellata, C. dringi, C. flavigaster, C. leucura, C. grismeri, C. hangus, C. karsticola, C. kumpoli, C. laoensis, C. limi, C. mahsuriae Grismer, Wood, Quah, Anuar, Ngadi & Ahmad, 2015, C. minang, C. mcguirei, C. monachorum, C. narathiwatensis, C. nigridia, C. pagai, C. paripari, C. perhentianensis, C. pseudomcguirei, C. roticanai Grismer & Chan, 2010, C. selamatkanmerapoh, C. sundainsula, C. shahruli, C. stongensis, C. tapanuli, and C. temiah.
In having enlarged median row of subcaudals, Cnemaspis muria sp. nov. can be distinguished from C. aceh, C. andalas, C. bidongensis, C. biocellata, C. bidongensis, C. dezwaani, C. jacobsoni, C. kumpoli, C. limi, C. mah- suriae, C. minang, C. modiglianii, C. monachorum, C. mumpuniae, C. nigridia, C. pagai, C. paripari, C. pemang- gilensis, C. sundagekko, C. sundainsula, C. whittenorum, and C. tapanuli.
The new species can be separated from Cnemaspis andalas, C. biocellata, C. flavigaster, C. kumpoli, C. laoen- sis, C. limi, C. minang, C. monachorum, C. sundainsula, and C. tapanuli by having keeled subcaudal scales.
The new species lacks a vertebral stripe which separates it from C. aceh, C. andalas, C. dezwaani, C. flavolin- eata*, C. jacobsoni, C. narathiwatensis, C. pseudomcguirei*, C. shahruli*, C. tapanuli, C. temiah* and C. whit- tenorum (species with variable presence of this character indicated by an asterisk *).
 
CommentHabitat: Cnemaspis muria sp. nov. is a scansorial species known only from large granite rock micro- habitats along rivers and coffee plantations (Fig. 8) on the southern slope of Gunung Muria at middle elevations, between 560 and 599 m. The holotype was caught at night, hanging on a tree root, 2 m above a dry river bank. The paratypes MZB. Lace. 14564 and MZB. Lace. 14572 were also caught at night, whereas the other paratypes were caught during the day hanging on shaded crevices of rocks. MZB. Lace. 14572 and four another specimens not col- lected were found foraging on rock walls, and sympatric with Cyrtodactylus sp. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet muria is a noun in apposition and refers to Gunung Muria, the type locality of this species, and so far, the only known locality for the genus Cnemaspis in Java. 
References
  • RIYANTO, AWAL; MISBAHUL MUNIR, ANDRI I. S. MARTAMENGGALA, YULI SULISTYA FITRIANA, AMIR HAMIDY 2019. Hiding in plain sight on Gunung Muria: A new species and first record of rock gecko (Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887; Squamata, Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia. Zootaxa 4608 (1): 155–173 - get paper here
 
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