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Cnemaspis pemanggilensis GRISMER & DAS, 2006

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Pemanggil Island Rock Gecko 
SynonymCnemaspis pemanggilensis GRISMER & DAS 2006
Cnemaspis pemanggilensis — GRISMER 2011
Cnemaspis pemanggilensis — GRISMER et al. 2014: 111 
DistributionMalaysia (Johor: Pulau Pemanggil, 0-250 m elevation)

Type locality: the base of Batu Buau, a small rocky hill behind Kampung Buau on the west side of Pulau Pemanggil, Johor,
West Malaysia, elevation 100 m.  
TypesHolotype: ZRC 2.6043, adult male, collected by Jesse L. Grismer on 27 March 2002. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Maximum SVL 76.0 mm; 10–13 supralabials; 8–10 infralabials; keeled ventral scales; no precloacal pores; 30–37 paravertebral tubercles; body tubercles randomly arranged, weak to absent on flanks, absent from lateral caudal furrows; ventrolateral row of caudal tubercles present anteriorly; lateral row of caudal tubercles present; caudal tubercles encircle tail; subcaudals keeled, bearing an enlarged median row of keeled scales; one or two postcloacal tubercles on each side of tail base; no enlarged femoral or subtibial scales; distal submetatarsal scales of fourth toe enlarged; subtibials keeled; 27–34 subdigital fourth toe lamellae; small, yellow spots on flanks (Tables 6,7 in GRISMER et al. 2014).

Cnemaspis pemanggilensis resembles C. baueri from nearby Pulau Aur and Pulau Dayang to the south, and C. limi from nearby Pulau Tioman and Pulau Tulai to the north. It differs from C. baueri by its larger SVL (maximum 76.0 mm vs. 64.9 mm), higher number of subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe (27–31 vs. 26–27), and by having two as opposed to one postcloacal spur. Other than having white spots on the flanks, the color pattern of C. pemanggilensis closely resembles that of C. baueri except that the color of C. pemanggilensis is usually more pronounced (in the light phase) and less faded. Cnemaspis pemanggilensis differs more significantly from C. limi than it does from C. baueri by having a smaller SVL (maximum 76.0 mm vs. 88.2 mm), fewer supralabial scales (13–15 vs. 16–18), more infralabial scales (10–14 vs. 8–10), having two as opposed to one postcloacal spur, and having an enlarged median row of keeled subcaudal scales as opposed to lacking keeled subcaudals. In coloration, C. pemanggilensis differs from C. limi primarily in lacking the prominent white-tipped dorsal and caudal tubercles and by having white spots on the flanks. It resembles C. kendallii of Tioman, Tulai (Grismer et al. 2001, 2004), Seribuat, Sembilang (Wood et al. 2003a), Tinggi (Escobar et al. 2003), Babi Besar, and Sibu islands (Wood et al. 2004a,b) and Peninsular Malaysia and northwestern Borneo (Manthey and Grossmann 1997) in having an enlarged midventral row of keeled subcaudal scales but differs from C. kendallii in lacking a dark, chevron-shaped marking in the lateral abdominal region, by having 21–31 subdigital lamellae beneath the fourth toe vs. 18–23 in C. kendallii, and by having a much larger SVL (maximum 76.0 mm vs. 62.0 mm) [from GRISMER & DAS 2006]. 
CommentDuring the day, individuals were dark in color with almost no discernible pattern. During the evening, their dorsal ground color changed to light grey, which greatly
accentuated a prominent series of dark transverse body bands and head stripes.
Cnemaspis pemanggilensis is syntopic with Gekko monarchus. To date, this is the only species of reptile endemic to Pulau Pemanggil.

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017).

Distribution: See map in Grismer et al. 2014: 18 (Fig. 4). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Grismer, J.L.; Grismer, L.L. & Chav T. 2010. New Species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Southwestern Cambodia. Journal of Herpetology 44 (1): 28–36 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee & Chan K. Onn 2008. A new species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Pulau Perhentian Besar, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 1771: 1–15 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Chan K. Onn; Nasir, N. & Sumontha, M. 2008. A new species of karst dwelling gecko (genus Cnemaspis Strauch 1887) from the border region of Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 1875: 51–68 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; MONTRI SUMONTHA, MICHAEL COTA, JESSE L. GRISMER, PERRY L. WOOD, JR., OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS & KIRATI KUNYA 2010. A revision and redescription of the rock gecko Cnemaspis siamensis (Taylor 1925) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Thailand with descriptions of seven new species. Zootaxa 2576: 1–55 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; NORHAYATI AHMAD, CHAN KIN ONN, DAICUS BELABUT, MUIN, M. A., PERRY L. WOOD, JR, & JESSE L. GRISMER 2009. Two new diminutive species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 2019: 40-56 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Amphibians and reptiles of the Seribuat Archipelago. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 239 pp.
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. & Das, I. 2006. A new species of gekkonid lizard of the genus Cnemaspis STRAUCH 1887 from Pulau Pemanggil, Johor, West Malaysia. Herpetological Natural History 10 (1): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. & Ngo, V.T. 2007. Four new species of the gekkonid genus Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Reptilia: Squamata) from Southern Vietnam. Herpetologica 63 (4): 482-500 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY JR L. WOOD, SHAHRUL ANUAR, AWAL RIYANTO, NORHAYATI AHMAD, MOHD A. MUIN, MONTRI SUMONTHA, JESSE L. GRISMER, CHAN KIN ONN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, OLIVIER S. A. PAUWELS 2014. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Zootaxa 3880 (1): 001–147 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., AMIRRUDIN B. AHMAD, ALEXANDRA S.-I. SUMARLI, JESSIKA J. VAZQUEZ, LUKMAN H. B. ISMAIL, RONALD NANCE, MUHAMMAD AFIF B. MOHD-AMIN, MOHAMAD N. A. B. OTHMAN, SYED A. RIZAIJESSIKA, MARIA KUSS, MATTHEW MURDOCH, ANTHONY COB 2014. A new species of insular Rock Gecko (Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) from the Bidong Archipelago, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3755 (5): 447–456 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Nguyen, H.N., Hung, C., Yang, M. et al. 2020. Sympatric competitors have driven the evolution of temporal activity patterns in Cnemaspis geckos in Southeast Asia. Sci Rep 10: 27 - get paper here
  • RIYANTO, AWAL; MISBAHUL MUNIR, ANDRI I. S. MARTAMENGGALA, YULI SULISTYA FITRIANA, AMIR HAMIDY 2019. Hiding in plain sight on Gunung Muria: A new species and first record of rock gecko (Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887; Squamata, Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia. Zootaxa 4608 (1): 155–173 - get paper here
  • WOOD, PERRY JR. L.; EVAN S.H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR M.S., MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2013. A new species of lowland karst dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3691 (5): 538–558 - get paper here
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