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Cnemaspis siamensis (SMITH, 1925)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Siamese Rock Gecko
G: Siam-Dünnfingergecko 
SynonymGonatodes siamensis SMITH 1925
Gonatodes kendalli SMITH 1916: 151 (non BOULENGER; fide TAYLOR 1963)
Cnemaspis siamensis — SMITH 1935: 71
Cnemaspis siamensis — KLUGE 1993
Cnemaspis siamensis — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 215
Cnemaspis siamensis — COX et al. 1998: 91
Cnemaspis (Cnemaspis) siamensis — RÖSLER 2000: 63
Cnemaspis siamensis — GRISMER et al. 2014: 49 
DistributionThailand (lowland, hilly regions east of the Tenasserim and Phuket Mountains from Kaeng Krachan National Park, Phetchaburi Province in the north, southward to Khao Mod, Surat Thani Province on the east coast and at least Kaeng Krung National Park, Surat Thani Province in the west; Chumphon, Phuket, Krabi, Nakhon Si,Thammarat, Trang, Satun), Myanmar (Tanintharyi Region)

Type locality: Maprit, near Patiyu, 60 km N of the Isthmus of Kra [= Pathio, Chumpon Province, Thailand]  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.19.83 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Adult males and females reaching 37.3 mm SVL; eight or nine supralabials; 6–8 infralabials; gular scales smooth; forearm, subtibials, ventrals, subcaudals, and dorsal tubercles keeled; 19–25 paravertebral tubercles; tubercles on flanks not linearly arranged; no ventrolateral caudal tubercles; caudal tubercles do not encircle tail; lateral, caudal tubercles may or may not occur with lateral, caudal furrow; scales of median, subcaudal scale row slightly enlarged and keeled; precloacal pores absent; one or two postcloacal tubercles; shield-like subtibials absent; metatarsal scales may be slightly enlarged; 22–26 subdigital lamellae on fourth toe; dark, longitudinal gular markings present; head not yellow in adult males; no dark shoulder or neck patch enclosing a white to yellow ocellus; no yellow to white, prescapular crescent or lightly colored, transverse bars on flanks. These differences are summarized across all species in TABLES 1 and 2 in GRISMER et al. 2010 and Grismer et al. 2014 (Table 6).
CommentSynonymy: C. siamensis has been split up into 4 species by GRISMER et al. (2010).

Group: The Cnemaspis siamensis group contains C. adangrawi, chanardi, huaseesom, kamolnoranathi, lineatubercularis, omari, phangngaensis, punctatonuchalis, roticanai, samui, selenolagus, siamensis, similan, thachanaensis, vandeventeri (fide Ampai et al. 2023). Rujirawan et al. 2022 and Ampai 2023: 139 presented tables with characters of the group.

Distribution: Not in S Myanmar (= Burma) (Tenasserim), W Malaysia, and China, according to GRISMER et al. (2010). These records are misidentifications of other species or populations that have been assigned to other species now. See map in Grismer 2020: 548 (Fig. 1), Grismer et al. 2014: 17 (Fig. 3). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Ampai N, Rujirawan A, Yodthong S, Termprayoon K, Stuart BL, Wood Jr PL, Aowphol A 2022. Hidden diversity of rock geckos within the Cnemaspis siamensis species group (Gekkonidae, Squamata): genetic and morphological data from southern Thailand reveal two new insular species and verify the phylogenetic affinities of C. chanardi and C. kam ZooKeys 1125: 115–158 - get paper here
  • Ampai N, Wood Jr PL, Stuart BL, Aowphol A 2020. Integrative taxonomy of the rock-dwelling gecko Cnemaspis siamensis complex (Squamata, Gekkonidae) reveals a new species from Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand. ZooKeys 932: 129-159 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das I 1994. Cnemaspis gordongekkoi, a new gecko from Lombok, Indonesia, and the biogeography of oriental species of Cnemaspis (Squamata: Sauria: Gekkonidae). Hamadryad 18: 1-9 [1993] - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2005. Revision of the Genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from the Mentawai and Adjacent Archipelagos off Western Sumatra, Indonesia, with the Description of Four New Species. Journal of Herpetology 39 (2): 233–247 - get paper here
  • Das, I. & Grismer, L.L. 2003. Two new species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the Seribuat Archipelago, Pahang and Johor States, West Malaysia. Herpetologica 59 (4): 544-552 - get paper here
  • Grismer, J.L.; Grismer, L.L. & Chav T. 2010. New Species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Southwestern Cambodia. Journal of Herpetology 44 (1): 28–36 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee & Chan K. Onn 2008. A new species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Pulau Perhentian Besar, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 1771: 1–15 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Chan K. Onn; Nasir, N. & Sumontha, M. 2008. A new species of karst dwelling gecko (genus Cnemaspis Strauch 1887) from the border region of Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 1875: 51–68 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; MONTRI SUMONTHA, MICHAEL COTA, JESSE L. GRISMER, PERRY L. WOOD, JR., OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS & KIRATI KUNYA 2010. A revision and redescription of the rock gecko Cnemaspis siamensis (Taylor 1925) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Thailand with descriptions of seven new species. Zootaxa 2576: 1–55 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PLATON V. YUSHCHENKO, PARINYA PAWANGKHANANT, ROMAN A. NAZAROV, MALI NAIDUANGCHAN, CHATMONGKON SUWANNAPOOM, NIKOLAY A. POYARKOV 2020. A new species of Cnemaspis Strauch (Squamata: Gekkonidae) of the C. siamensis group from Tenasserim Mountains, Thailand. Zootaxa 4852 (5): 547–564; erratum in Zootaxa 4951 (3): 599 (DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4951.3.11) - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. & Das, I. 2006. A new species of gekkonid lizard of the genus Cnemaspis STRAUCH 1887 from Pulau Pemanggil, Johor, West Malaysia. Herpetological Natural History 10 (1): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. & Ngo, V.T. 2007. Four new species of the gekkonid genus Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Reptilia: Squamata) from Southern Vietnam. Herpetologica 63 (4): 482-500 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY JR L. WOOD, SHAHRUL ANUAR, AWAL RIYANTO, NORHAYATI AHMAD, MOHD A. MUIN, MONTRI SUMONTHA, JESSE L. GRISMER, CHAN KIN ONN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, OLIVIER S. A. PAUWELS 2014. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Zootaxa 3880 (1): 001–147 - get paper here
  • Grossmann,W. & Tillack,F. 2001. Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna des Khao Lak, Phang Nga, thailändische Halbinsel. Teil III: Ergebnisse der Jahre 1999 und 2000. Sauria 23 (3): 21-34 - get paper here
  • LEE, JUSTIN L.; ARYEH H. MILLER, GEORGE R. ZUG, DANIEL G. MULCAHY 2019. The discovery of Rock Geckos Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in the Tanintharyi Region, Myanmar with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 4661 (1): 040–064 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Nguyen, H.N., Hung, C., Yang, M. et al. 2020. Sympatric competitors have driven the evolution of temporal activity patterns in Cnemaspis geckos in Southeast Asia. Sci Rep 10: 27 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • Pauwels,O.S.G. et al. 2000. Herpetological investigations in Phang-Nga Province, southern Peninsular Thailand, with a list of reptile species and notes on their biology. Dumerilia 4 (2): 123-154 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Rujirawan, A., Yodthong, S., Ampai, N., Termprayoon, K., Aksornneam, A., Stuart, B. L., & Aowphol, A. 2022. A new rock gecko in the Cnemaspis siamensis group (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) from Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. Zoosystematics and Evolution, 98(2), 345-363 - get paper here
  • Smith, M. A. 1925. Contribution to the herpetology of Borneo. Sarawak Mus. J. 3 (8): 15-34. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1916. On a collection of reptiles and batrachians from peninsular Siam. J. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam 2: 148-171 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
  • WOOD, PERRY JR. L.; EVAN S.H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR M.S., MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2013. A new species of lowland karst dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3691 (5): 538–558 - get paper here
  • Zug, G.R. & Mulcahy, D.G. 2019. Identification guide Amphibians and reptiles of South Tanintharyi. Fauna & Flora International, 101 pp.
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