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Cnemidophorus flavissimus UGUETO, HARVEY & RIVAS, 2010

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Los Frailes Whiptail 
SynonymCnemidophorus flavissimus UGUETO, HARVEY & RIVAS 2010
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus — HUMMELINCK 1940: 83
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus — MARCUZZI 1950: 247
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus — ROZE 1964: 99
Cnemidophorus flavissimus — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionVenezuela (Archipiélago Los Frailes: La Pecha and Isla Real)

Type locality: Archipiélago Los Frailes (11° 12’ 30’’ N, 63° 45’ 0’’ W), Dependencias Federales, Venezuela, elevation 0–20 m.  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MBUCV 983 (Fig. 4), adult male, collected in December 1948 by Luis Duque 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of the Cnemidophorus lemniscatus species complex distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) maximum SVL in males 74 mm; (2) nostril slightly anterior to nasal suture; (3) frontonasal hexagonal or subrhomboidal with angular or semicircular sutures with nasals; (4) first supraciliary in contact with prefrontal; (5) 5–11 (total of both sides) scales of circumorbital semicircles extending to anterior fourth or rarely to posterior third supraoculars; (6) 26–33 (total of both sides) scales in a single row between supraoculars and supraciliaries; (7) 10–13 enlarged mesoptychials; (8) 29–32 ventrals; (9) bisexual (gonochoristic; both sexes exist); (10) enlarged scales on upper arm extending almost to shoulder; (11) males with one anal spur at each side (narrow and moderately elongated, extending close to body); (12) one or two large scales between anal spurs and preanal shield; (13) vertebral stripe single and 8–11 scales between paravertebral stripes; (14) adult males in preservative with 0–3 pale spots on flanks between axilla and inguinal region; (15) females without flank spots or distinct stripes; (16) adult males in life with pale brown-gray head and arms and yellow body; (17) juveniles with eight or nine light stripes, often broken into shorter stripes or elongated spots. 
CommentGroup: member of the lemniscatus group, see C. lemniscatus for details. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, flavissimus, is an adjective that comes from the Latin noun flavum, meaning ‘‘yellow,’’ and the Latin superlative suffix issimus, meaning ‘‘the most.’’ The name means ‘‘yellowest,’’ alluding to the characteristic yellow coloration of the posterior half of the body, legs and tail in members of this species. 
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; GABRIEL N. UGUETO & RONALD L. GUTBERLET, Jr. 2012. Review of Teiid Morphology with a Revised Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Teiidae (Lepidosauria: Squamata). Zootaxa 3459: 1–156 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Ugueto, Gabriel N. and Michael B. Harvey 2010. Southern Caribbean Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): Description of New Species and Taxonomic Status of C. murinus ruthveni Burt. Herpetological Monographs 24 (1): 111-148 - get paper here
  • Ugueto, Gabriel N.; Michael B. Harvey, and Gilson A. Rivas 2010. TWO NEW SPECIES OF CNEMIDOPHORUS (SQUAMATA: TEIIDAE) FROM ISLANDS OF THE NORTHEASTERN COAST OF VENEZUELA. Herpetological Monographs 23 (1): 123-153 [2009] - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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