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Conopsis lineata (KENNICOTT, 1859)

IUCN Red List - Conopsis lineata - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Lined Tolucan Ground Snake, Lined Tolucan Earthsnake 
SynonymToluca lineata KENNICOTT in BAIRD 1859: 23
Stenorhina varians JAN 1857:48 (nomen nudum).
Oxyrhina varians JAN 1862:54, 60, 61, 75
Oxyrhina varians JAN 1862
Toluca lineata varians JAN 1862:54
Ogmius varians — COPE 1869: 162
Ogmius varians SUMICHRAST 1873:249
Ogmius varians — COPE 1879: 265
Ogmius (Oxyrhina) varians SUMICHRAST 1882:42
Conopsis varians BOCOURT 1883:566
Conopsis lineatus BOCOURT 1883:565–566
Chionactis diasii COPE in FERRARI-PEREZ 1886:188–189
Conopsis lineata DUGÉS 1896:413
Chionactis varians COPE 1896:1021
Chionactis diasii diasii COPE 1898:943
Chionactis nasus RUTHVEN 1912:231
Conopsis nasus SMITH 1939:32
Toluca lineata varians — SMITH 1942
Toluca lineata lineata — DAVIS & SMITH 1953
Toluca lineata — LINER 1994
Toluca lineata — CASTRO-FRANCO & BUSTOS-ZAGAL 1994
Conopsis lineata — GOYENECHEA & FLORES-VILLELA 2002
Conopsis lineata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 181
Conopsis lineata — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015 
DistributionMexico (Distrito Federal, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo,
Jalisco, Estado de Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tlaxcala and Veracruz, Zacatecas), elevation 1750 to 3100 m.

Type locality: Valley of Mexico.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 2103 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: This species is characterized by the following combination of characters: divided internasals and prefrontals; brown dorsal coloration and three to five dark lines along body. Ventrally it is yellowish with no spots. This taxon is the smallest in the genus mean SVL 176.1 mm. It differs from other members of the genus by its characteristic dorsal pattern.
CommentSubspecies: Conopsis lineata acuta (COPE in FERRARI-PEREZ 1886) has been elevated to full species status.

Synonymy: Conopsis lineata varians (JAN 1862) has been synonymized with Conopsis lineata by GOYENECHEA & FLORES-VILLELA 2006.

Distribution: reports from Guerrero actually represent C. biserialis, but C. lineata may still be present in Guerrero (R. Palacios-Aguilar, pers. comm., 1 June 2018).

Diet: insects etc. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “linea”, meaning stripe or line. 
  • Baird,S.F. 1859. Reptiles. Expl. Surv. R. R. Route Mississippi River to Pacific Ocean (Williamson Route). Washington DC 10 (pt. 4, no. 4): 9-13
  • Canseco-Márquez, L., & Gutiérrrez-Mayén, M.G. 2010. Anfibios y reptiles del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Comisión Nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, México D.F., Mexico, 302 pp - get paper here
  • Carbajal-Márquez, R. A., J. C. Arenas-Monroy, Z. Y. González-Saucedo, J. M. Jones & L. Gallegos Román. 2012. Conopsis lineata. (Lined Tolucan Ground Snake). México: Zacatecas. Herpetological Review 43: 105 - get paper here
  • Castro-Franco, Rubén, María Guasalupe Bustos-Zagal 1994. List of reptiles of Morelos, Mexico, and their distribution in relation to vegetation types. Southwestern Naturalist 39 (2): 171-175 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. In: Ferrari-Perez: Catalogue of animals collected by the geographical and exploring commission of the Republic of Mexico, pp. 125-199 [Part III. Reptiles and Amphibians]. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 9: 182-199 - get paper here
  • Davis, William B.; Smith, Hobart M. 1953. Snakes of the Mexican state of Morelos. Herpetologica 8: 133-149 - get paper here
  • Dixon, James R. and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2010. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Queretaro, Mexico. Tlalnepantla UNAM, 428 pp.
  • Fernández-Badillo, Leonardo & Irene Goyenechea-Mayer Goyenechea 2010. Anfibios y reptiles del valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 81: 705- 712
  • Fernández-Badillo, Leonardo; Norma Leticia Manríquez-Morán; Jesús Martín Castillo-Cerón & Irene Goyenechea 2016. Análisis herpetofaunístico de la zona árida del estado de Hidalgo. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 156–170 - get paper here
  • Flores V., Mendoza Q. & González P. 1995. Recopilación de claves para la determinación de amphibios y reptiles de México. Publ. Espec. Mus. Zool. (UNAM), no. 10
  • García-Balderas, Christian Martin, Gustavo Ernesto Quintero-Díaz, Cesar Raziel Lucio-Palacio and Daniela Valdez-Jiménez. 2014. Conopsis lineata (lined Tolucan ground snake) diet. Herpetological Review 45 (2): 337 - get paper here
  • Gehlbach, Frederick R.;Collette, Bruce B. 1957. A contribution to the herpetofauna of the highlands of Oaxaca, Mexico. Herpetologica 13: 227-232 - get paper here
  • Goyenechea, Irene & Flores-Villela, Oscar 2002. Taxonomic status of the snake genera Conopsis and Toluca (Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 36 (1): 92-95 - get paper here
  • GOYENECHEA, IRENE & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2006. Taxonomic summary of Conopsis, Günther, 1858 (Serpentes: Colubridae). Zootaxa 1271: 1–27 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Jan, G. 1862. Enumerazione sistematico delle specie d'ofidi del gruppo Calamaridae. Arch. Zool., Anat. Fisiol., 2: 1-76. - get paper here
  • Kunz, Kriton 2015. Schlangen, die Wirbellose fressen. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (5): 14-20 - get paper here
  • Langner, Christian 2014. Herpetologische Beobachtungen im Lebensraum von Abronia deppii im Valle de Bravo, Estado de México, Mexiko. Terraria-Elaphe 2014 (2): 46-55 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 753: 83-106 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Leyte-Manrique, Adrian; Abel Antonio Buelna-Chontal,<br />Miguel Alejandro Torres-Dıaz, Christian Berriozabal-Islas, and Carlos Alberto Maciel-Mata 2019. A Comparison of Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Between Disturbed and Undisturbed Environments of Salvatierra, Guanajuato, Mexico. Tropical Conservation Science 12: 1–12 - get paper here
  • Leyte-Manrique, Adrian; Christian Berriozabal-Islas, Vicente Mata-Silva, and Juan Pablo Morales-Castorena 2018. Herpetofaunal diversity in Área Natural Protegida Las Musas, Guanajuato, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 5 (1): 122–136 - get paper here
  • Leyte-Manrique, Adrian; Efrén M. Hernández Navarro y Luis A. Escobedo-Morales 2015. Herpetofauna de Guanajuato: Un análisis histórico y contemporáneo de su conocimiento. Revista Mexicana de Herpetología 1(1): 1–14
  • Liner, E.A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Herpetological Circular 23: 1-113
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  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • Muñoz-Nolasco, Francisco Javier; Daniel Cruz-Sáenz, Oscar Jair Rodríguez-Ruvalcaba and Isaac Enrique Terrones-Ferreiro 2015. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Western Mexico 12: Herpetofauna of a Temperate Forest in Mazamitla, Southeastern Jalisco, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 50 (4):45-50 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Roth-Monzón AJ, Mendoza-Hernández AA, Flores-Villela O. 2018. Amphibian and reptile biodiversity in the semi-arid region of the municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Hidalgo, Mexico. PeerJ 6: e4202 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1943. Summary of the collections of snakes and crocodilians made in Mexico under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. Proceeding of the U. S. National Museum, 93 (3169): 393-504 - get paper here
  • Vite-Silva, Victor D.; Aurelio Ramírez-Bautista y Uriel Hernández-Salinas 2010. Diversidad de anfibios y reptiles de la Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, México Diversity of amphibians and reptiles from the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphera Reserve in Hidalgo, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 81: 473- 485
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  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884
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