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Corallus annulatus (COPE, 1876)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Boinae), Henophidia, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Ringed Tree Boa
G: Geringelte Baumboa 
SynonymXiphosoma annulatum COPE 1876
Corallus annulatus - BOULENGER 1893: 102
Boa annulata colombiana RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1941
Boa annulata annulata RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1941
Corallus annulata annulata — PETERS 1957
Corallus annulata colombiana — PETERS 1957
Corallus annulatus colombianus — STIMSON 1969
Corallus annulatus annulatus — STIMSON 1969
Corallus annulatus — STIMSON 1969
Corallus annulatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 189
Corallus annulatus — SAVAGE 2002
Corallus annulatus — HENDERSON et al. 2001 
DistributionNicaragua, E Guatemala [Smith & Acevedo 1997], Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Belize ? (P. Stafford, pers. comm.), Honduras (WILSON & MCCRANIE 2002)

Type locality: Costa Rica

colombianus (invalid): Colombia; Type locality: Cabeceras, Choco, Colombia, Holotype: RMS = NRM. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: USNM 32480. 
CommentSubspecies: PETERS 1957 doubts the validity of Corallus annulatus colombianus (RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1941) [fide STIMSON 1969]. Corallus annulatus blombergi (RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1941) is now treated as valid species. Note that this species is quite variable with grayis, brownisch, and redish forms (WIRZ 2004).

Distribution: not in Ecuador (fide TORRES-CARVAJAL, pers. comm., 13 Feb 2012). See also MCDIARMID et al. 1999.

Reproduction: viviparous

Diagnosis: Corallus annulatus is distinguishable from members of the C. hortulanus complex (C. cookii, C. grenadensis, C. hortulanus, C. ruschenbergerii) by the combination of presence or absence of nasal contact (usually contact in C. hortulanus complex, usually not in C. annulatus) and number of sub-caudals (94–137 in C. hortulanus complex, 79–88 in C. annulatus). It is distinguishable from C. cropanii on the basis of maximum number of dorsal scale rows (<35 in C. cropanii, 50–57 in C. annulatus), and from C. caninus by the maximum number of dorsal scale rows (63–77 in C. caninus), and ventrals (251–268 in C. annulatus, 186–209 in C. caninus). It differs from C. blombergi in dorsal ground color (usually beige to red-brown in C. annulatus, usually milk chocolate brown to rich dark brown in C. blombergi); dorsal blotches 6–12 (usually 9–10) scales wide at midbody in C. annulatus [6–9 (usually 7–8) in C. blombergi]; central area of dorsal blotches more or less same shade as dorsal ground color in C. annulatus (distinctly paler than dorsal ground color in C. blombergi); infraloreals + loreals usually 8–9 in C. annulatus (usually 6 in C. blombergi); anterior edge of splenial hooked in C. annulatus (gradually tapering anteroventrally in C. blombergi); and coronoid in contact with the angular in C. annulatus (separated in C. blombergi) [HENDERSON et al. 2001]. 
EtymologyEtymology: Named after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1876. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [1875] - get paper here
  • Henderson R W 1993. Corallus annulatus (Cope). Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 573: 1-3 - get paper here
  • Henderson, R. W., Pauers, M. J. and Colston, T. J. 2013. On the congruence of morphology, trophic ecology, and phylogeny in Neotropical treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109: 466–475. doi: 10.1111/bij.12052 - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W. and Michael J. Pauers 2012. On the Diets of Neotropical Treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus) South American Journal of Herpetology 7 (2): 172-180. - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W., Mats Höggren, William W. Lamar and Louis W. Porras 2001. Distribution and variation in the treeboa Corallus annulatus (Serpentes: Boidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 36(1):39-47
  • Henderson, Robert W.; Michael J. Pauers and Timothy J. Colston 2013. On the congruence of morphology, trophic ecology, and phylogeny in Neotropical treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, DOI: 10.1111/bij.12052 - get paper here
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno,A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, James A. 1957. Taxonomic notes on Ecuadorian snakes in the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum Novitates (1851): 1-13 - get paper here
  • Rendahl,H. & VESTERGREN,G. 1941. Notes on Colombian snakes. Arkiv för Zoologi 33A [1940] (5): 1-16
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Smith, E.N. & M.E. Acevedo 1997. The northernmost distribution of Corallus annulatus (Boidae), with comments on its natural history. Southwestern Naturalist 42 (3): 347-349 - get paper here
  • Villa, J., Wilson, L.D., Johnson, J.D. 1988. Middle American Herpetology - A Bibliographic Checklist. University of Missouri Press
  • Wilson, Larry David and James R. McCranie 2002. Update on the list of reptiles know from Honduras. Herpetological Review 33 (2):90-94 - get paper here
  • Wirz, S. 2004. Die Ringelboa (Corallus annulatus annulatus). Reptilia (Münster) 9 (48): 65-71 - get paper here
 
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