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Corallus annulatus (COPE, 1875)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Boinae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Ringed Tree Boa
G: Geringelte Baumboa 
SynonymXiphosoma annulatum COPE 1876
Corallus annulatus — BOULENGER 1893: 102
Boa annulata colombiana RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1941: 2
Boa annulata annulata RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1940
Boa annulata — TAYLOR 1951: 28
Corallus annulata annulata — PETERS 1957
Corallus annulata colombiana — PETERS 1957
Corallus annulatus colombianus — STIMSON 1969
Corallus annulatus annulatus — STIMSON 1969
Corallus annulatus — STIMSON 1969
Corallus annulatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 189
Corallus annulatus — SAVAGE 2002
Corallus annulatus — HENDERSON et al. 2001
Corallus annulatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 182
Corallus annulatus — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 16 
DistributionNicaragua, E Guatemala [Smith & Acevedo 1997], Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia (incl. Valle del Cauca), Honduras (WILSON & MCCRANIE 2002)

Type locality: Costa Rica

colombianus (invalid): Colombia; Type locality: Cabeceras, Choco, Colombia.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 32480, juvenile
Holotype: RMS = NRM [colombianus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Corallus annulatus is distinguishable from members of the C. hortulanus complex (C. cookii, C. grenadensis, C. hortulanus, C. ruschenbergerii) by the combination of presence or absence of nasal contact (usually contact in C. hortulanus complex, usually not in C. annulatus) and number of sub-caudals (94–137 in C. hortulanus complex, 79–88 in C. annulatus). It is distinguishable from C. cropanii on the basis of maximum number of dorsal scale rows (<35 in C. cropanii, 50–57 in C. annulatus), and from C. caninus by the maximum number of dorsal scale rows (63–77 in C. caninus), and ventrals (251–268 in C. annulatus, 186–209 in C. caninus). It differs from C. blombergi in dorsal ground color (usually beige to red-brown in C. annulatus, usually milk chocolate brown to rich dark brown in C. blombergi); dorsal blotches 6–12 (usually 9–10) scales wide at midbody in C. annulatus [6–9 (usually 7–8) in C. blombergi]; central area of dorsal blotches more or less same shade as dorsal ground color in C. annulatus (distinctly paler than dorsal ground color in C. blombergi); infraloreals + loreals usually 8–9 in C. annulatus (usually 6 in C. blombergi); anterior edge of splenial hooked in C. annulatus (gradually tapering anteroventrally in C. blombergi); and coronoid in contact with the angular in C. annulatus (separated in C. blombergi) [HENDERSON et al. 2001]. 
CommentSubspecies: PETERS 1957 doubts the validity of Corallus annulatus colombianus (RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1941) [fide STIMSON 1969]. Corallus annulatus blombergi (RENDAHL & VESTERGREN 1941) is now treated as valid species. Note that this species is quite variable with grayis, brownisch, and redish forms (WIRZ 2004).

Distribution: Probably in Belize as the species was found 20 km near the border (Henderson et al. 2010). Not in Ecuador (fide TORRES-CARVAJAL, pers. comm., 13 Feb 2012). See also MCDIARMID et al. 1999.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring. 
  • Batista A, Mebert K, Miranda M, Garcés O, Fuentes R, Ponce M. 2020. Endemism on a threatened sky island: new and rare species of herpetofauna from Cerro Chucantí, Eastern Panama. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 14(2) [General Section]: 27–46 (e237) - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Guatemala, the Yucatán, and Belize. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, xiii + 380 pp. - get paper here
  • Castro-Herrera, F. & Vargas-Salinas, F. 2008. Anfibios y reptiles en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9 (2): 251 - 277 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [sometimes said to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification]] - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Henderson R W 1993. Corallus annulatus (Cope). Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 573: 1-3 - get paper here
  • Henderson, R. W. 2015. Neotropical Treeboas - Natural History of the Corallus hortulanus Complex. Edition Chimaira. ISBN 9783899734386. 338 pp.
  • Henderson, Robert W. and Michael J. Pauers 2012. On the Diets of Neotropical Treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). South American J. Herp. 7 (2): 172-180. - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W., Mats Höggren, William W. Lamar and Louis W. Porras 2001. Distribution and variation in the treeboa Corallus annulatus (Serpentes: Boidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 36(1):39-47 - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W.; Mats Höggren, William W. Lamar & Louis W. Porras 2001. Distribution and Variation in the Treeboa Corallus annulatus (Serpentes: Boidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 36:1, 39-47 - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W.; Michael J. Pauers and Timothy J. Colston 2013. On the congruence of morphology, trophic ecology, and phylogeny in Neotropical treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109: 466–475. doi: 10.1111/bij.12052 - get paper here
  • Hilje B, Chaves G, Klank J, Timmerman F, Feltham J, Gillingwater S, Piraino T, Rojas E 2020. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tirimbina Biological Reserve: a baseline for conservation, research and environmental education in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. Check List 16(6): 1633-1655 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Lewis, T.R., Grant, P.B.C., Henderson, R.W., Figueroa, A. & Dunn, M. 2011. Ecological notes on Corallus annulatus (Linnaeus) from a Costa Rican lowland tropical wet forest. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 18 (4): 204-207 - get paper here
  • Lewis, T.R., Nash, D.J. & Grant, P.B.C. 2009. Predation by Corallus annulatus (Boidae) on Rhynchonycteris naso (Emballonuridae) in a lowland tropical wet forest, Costa Rica. Cuadernos de Herpetologia 23 (2): 93-96 - get paper here
  • Maffei, Fábio; Gerson Rodrigues do Nascimento and Domingos Garrone Neto. 2009. Predation on the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Sauria: Teiidae) by a coral snake Micrurus frontalis (Serpentes: Elapidae) in Brazil. Herpetology Notes 2: 235-237. - get paper here
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Muñoz, Carlos A.; Robert W. Henderson and Juan M. Daza. 2013. First observation of mating in the arboreal boid, Corallus annulatus in the wild. Herpetology Notes 6: 537-538.
  • Páez, V.P. et al. 2002. Guía de campo de algunas especies de anfibios y reptiles de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, James A. 1957. Taxonomic notes on Ecuadorian snakes in the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum Novitates (1851): 1-13 - get paper here
  • Pinto-Erazo MA, Medina-Rangel GF 2018. First record of Corallus blombergi (Rendahl & Vestergren, 1941) (Serpentes, Boidae) from Colombia. Check List 14(1): 183-188 - get paper here
  • Pinto-Erazo, M.A., Calderón-Espinosa, M.L., Medina-Rangel, G.F. & Méndez-Galeano, M.A. 2020. Herpetofauna from two municipalities of southwestern Colombia. Biota Colombiana 21(1): 41-57. DOI: 10.21068/c2020.v21n01a04 - get paper here
  • Queiroga Cavalcanti, Lucas Barbosa de, Arielson dos Santos-Protázio, Ralph Lacerda de Albuquerque, Carmem Karime Bacalháo Pedro and Daniel Oliveira Mesquita. 2012. Death of a coral snake Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820) (Elapidae) due to failed predation on bigger prey: a cat-eyed night snake Leptodeira annulata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Dipsadidae). Herpetology Notes 6: 129-131.
  • Ray, Julie M. and Patty Ruback 2015. Updated checklists of snakes for the provinces of Panamá and Panamá Oeste, Republic of Panama. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (2): 168-188 - get paper here
  • Rendahl, H. & VESTERGREN,G. 1940. Notes on Colombian snakes. Arkiv för Zoologi 33A [1941?] (5): 1-16
  • Reynolds, R. Graham and Robert W. Henderson 2018. Boas of the World (Superfamily Booidae): A Checklist With Systematic, Taxonomic, and Conservation Assessments. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Sep 2018, Vol. 162, No. 1: 1-58. - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
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  • Solis, José Mario; Mario Roberto Espinal, Louis W. Porras, José M. Mora 2021. Comments on a disputed record of the Ringed Treeboa, Corallus annulatus (Cope 1875) (Squamata: Boidae), from northwestern Honduras. Reptiles & Amphibians 28 (1): 142-145 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
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  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
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  • Valencia-Zuleta A, Jaramillo-Martínez AF, Echeverry-Bocanegra A, Viáfara-Vega R, Hernández-Córdoba O, Cardona-Botero VE, Gutiérrez-Zúñiga J, Castro-Herrera F. 2014. Conservation status of the herpetofauna, protected areas, and current problems in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2): 1–18 (e87) - get paper here
  • Villa, J., Wilson, L.D., Johnson, J.D. 1988. Middle American Herpetology - A Bibliographic Checklist. University of Missouri Press, 132 pp [review in Copeia 1989 (3): 802]
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