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Corallus batesii (GRAY, 1860)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Boinae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymChrysenis batesi GRAY 1860: 132
Corallus caninus — BOULENGER 1893:102
Boa canina — AMARAL 1925:8
Corallus caninus — PETERS and DONOSO-BARROS 1970:72
Corallus batesii — HENDERSON et al. 2009
Corallus batesii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 182 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Pará), Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia; elevation 0-1000 m

Type locality: "Upper Amazon". Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: NHM 1859.12.28.12 
CommentThis species has been revalidated from the synonymy Corallus caninus by HENDERSON et al. 2009.

Corallus batesi and C. caninus can interbreed in captivity and litter are perfectly fertile. Hybrids from batesi x caninus show dorsal pattern of caninus without dark shading inside white marks (often with larger white triangles) and iregoular lateral white marks like batesi, often more and irregular (Angelo Cabodi, peres. comm.)

Original description: “Pale brown, with a series of oblong subangular black-edged pale spots on the hinder part of the back, which become broader and more distinct as they approach the end of the tail, and with a series of distant small roundish black-edged spots on the lower part of the middle of the body, the hinder spot largest and nearest to the edge of the ventral shield [from GRAY 1860].

Diagnosis: Distinguishable from all other species of Corallus (except C. caninus) based on its green dorsal ground color (rarely black or nearly so) with enamel-white markings on the dorsum (never immaculate green). Juveniles are usuallyred-orange with enamel-white markings (other species of Corallus are various shades of gray, brown, red, and yellow as adults, always with patterns consisting of more than just white markings). Differs from C. caninus by the number of scales across snout at level of suture between the third and fourth supralabials (3–12, mean = 6.9 +/- 1.6 in C. batesii; 2– 6, mean = 3.4 +/- 1.1 in C. caninus), presence or absence of mid-dorsal longitudinal stripe (absent in C. caninus), and lateral blotches rarely absent (0–38, mean = 18.1 +/- 8.2 in C. batesii; 0–11, mean = 1.3 +/- 2.7 in C. caninus). Mitochondrial DNA sequence differences between Amazonia samples (C. batesii) and those from the Guiana Shield (C. caninus) ranged from 3.1–16.2% (Vidal et al., 2005) [from HENDERSON et al. 2009]. 
EtymologyEtymology.—The epithet, a Latinized noun, honors Henry Walter Bates (1825–1892), the British naturalist who spent 11 years in Brazilian Amazonia collecting and studying its flora and fauna. 
References
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Fraga R de, Stow AJ, Magnusson WE, Lima AP 2014. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia. PLoS ONE 9(8): e105453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105453 - get paper here
  • Gray, J.E. 1860. Description of a new genus of Boidae discovered by Mr. Bates on the Upper Amazon. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 6: 131-132 - get paper here
  • Henderson, R. W. 2015. Neotropical Treeboas - Natural History of the Corallus hortulanus Complex Edition Chimaira. ISBN 9783899734386. 338 pp.
  • Henderson, R. W., Pauers, M. J. and Colston, T. J. 2013. On the congruence of morphology, trophic ecology, and phylogeny in Neotropical treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109: 466–475. doi: 10.1111/bij.12052 - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W. and Michael J. Pauers 2012. On the Diets of Neotropical Treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). South American J. Herp. 7 (2): 172-180. - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W., Paulo Passos and Darlan Feitosa 2009. Geographic variation in the Emerald Treeboa, Corallus caninus (Squamata: Boidae). Copeia 2009 (3): 572-582. - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W.; Michael J. Pauers and Timothy J. Colston 2013. On the congruence of morphology, trophic ecology, and phylogeny in Neotropical treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, DOI: 10.1111/bij.12052 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Regent, Mark 2012. Grüne Hundskopfschlinger Corallus caninus und Corallus batesii. Natur und Tier Verlag, 64 pp. - get paper here
  • Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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