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Corallus ruschenbergerii (COPE, 1876)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Boinae), Henophidia, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Ruschenberger Tree Boa, False Manapare, Dormilona
G: Ruschenbergers Gartenboa 
SynonymXiphosoma ruschenbergerii COPE 1876: 129
Xiphosoma ruschenbergii — BOULENGER 1893: 99 (in error)
Corallus cookei var. ruschenbergi — BOETTGER 1898: 10 (in error)
Boa ruschenbergii - STEJNEGER 1902: 184 (in errore)
Boa salmonidia BRICEÑO ROSSI 1934: 1141
Corallus ruschenbergerii — HENDERSON 1997: 212
Corallus ruschenbergerii — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 191
Corallus ruschenbergerii — BOOS 2001 
DistributionSW Costa Rica, Panama (including Isla del Rey, Isla Contadora, Isla de Cébaco, Isla Suscantupu), Colombia (east of the Andes and north of the cordilleras Central and Oriental), N Venezuela (north of the Cordillera de Mérida and in the drainage of the Río Orinoco, north and west of the Guiana Shield, east to the Orinoco delta, Trujilllo [HR 35: 190]; Cojedes, Isla Margarita; Trinidad, Tobago)

Type locality: "Panama" Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 10325 
CommentDiagnosis.—Corallus ruschenbergerii is easily distinguished from all other species of Corallus except C. grenadensis. The maximum number of dorsal scale rows in C. cropanii is fewer than 35 (38–48 in C. ruschenbergerii). Corallus annulatus, the only congener with which there is significant sympatry, has a maximum of 50–57 dorsal scale rows and only 79–87 subcaudals (94–115 in C. ruschenbergerii). Corallus caninus has a maximum of 63–77 dorsal scale rows, and 186–209 ventrals (250–272 in C. ruschenbergerii). With very few exceptions, C. hortulanus from mainland South America and Ilha Grande off southeastern Brazil have 50 or more maximum dorsal scale rows (individuals from Guyana, Suriname, Peru, and Bolivia rarely have 47 or 48) and color and pattern are extremely variable.
Corallus from St. Vincent and the Grenada Bank are the shortest and most slender of the Neotropical tree boas, and this can be related to aspects of their ecology (see below). They exhibit great overlap in lepidosis with C. ruschenbergerii, but C. ruschenbergerii is much larger (maximum SVL in West Indian Corallus is 1625 mm), and C. grenadensis exhibits tremendous color and pattern variation. Despite the pattern variation in the West Indian populations, none of it duplicates that found in C. ruschenbergerii, with the exception of yellow-brown individuals that have no discernible pattern [from HENDERSON 1997].

Max. total length: 2.5 m.

Reproduction: viviparous 
References
  • Boettger, O. 1898. Katalog der Reptilien-Sammlung im Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt/M. 2.Teil (Schlangen). Frankfurt/M (Gebr. Knauer), i-ix + 1-160. - get paper here
  • Boos, H.E.A. 2001. The snakes of Trinidad and Tobago. Texas A&M University Press, 270 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Briceno-Rossi, A.L. 1934. El problema del ofidismo en Venezuela. Bol. Min. Salubr. Agric. Cria, Venezuela, Caracas, 1: 1079-1177
  • Cope, E.D. 1876. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [1875] - get paper here
  • Esqueda; L.F. & E. La Marca. 2004. Geographic Distribution (Serpentes): Corallus ruschenbergerii. Herpetological Review 35(2):190 - get paper here
  • Henderson, R. W. 2002. Neotropical Treeboas. Krieger Publ. Company, Malabar, 198 pp.
  • Henderson, R. W., Pauers, M. J. and Colston, T. J. 2013. On the congruence of morphology, trophic ecology, and phylogeny in Neotropical treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109: 466–475. doi: 10.1111/bij.12052 - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W. 1997. A Taxonomic Review of the Corallus hortulanus Complex of Neotropical Tree Boas. Carib. J. Sci. 33 (3-4): 198-221.
  • Henderson, Robert W. and Michael J. Pauers 2012. On the Diets of Neotropical Treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). South American Journal of Herpetology 7 (2): 172-180. - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W.; Michael J. Pauers and Timothy J. Colston 2013. On the congruence of morphology, trophic ecology, and phylogeny in Neotropical treeboas (Squamata: Boidae: Corallus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, DOI: 10.1111/bij.12052 - get paper here
  • Kornacker, Paul M.;Dederichs, Ursula 1998. Herpetologische Eindrücke einer Venezuelareise - Teil 2: Die Llanos. Elaphe 6 (3): 68-73
  • Markezich, A.L. 2002. New distribution records of reptiles from Western Venezuela. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 69-74 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Medina-RanGel, Guido Fabián 2013. CAMBIO EstACIOnAl En El UsO DE lOs RECURsOs DE lA COMUnIDAD DE REptIlEs En El COMplEJO CEnAgOsO DE ZApAtOsA, DEpARtAMEntO DEl CEsAR (Colombia). Caldasia 35 (1):103-122
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno,A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Rivas Fuenmayor, Gilson and Cesar Luis Barrio Amorós 2005. New Amphibian and Reptile records from Cojedes State, Venezuela. Herpetological Review 36 (2):205-209. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Solórzano, A. 2006. Die Schlangen der Osa-Halbinsel [Costa Rica]. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 28-31 - get paper here
  • Solórzano, A. 2006. Snakes of the Osa Peninsula [Costa Rica]. Reptilia (GB) (48): 30-34 - get paper here
  • Stejneger,L. 1902. An annotated list of batrachians and reptiles collected in the vicinity of La Guaira, Venezuela, with descriptions of two new species of snakes. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 24 [1901]: 179-192. - get paper here
 
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