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Crocodylus intermedius (GRAVES, 1819)

IUCN Red List - Crocodylus intermedius - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Orinoco crocodile
G: Orinokokrokodil 
SynonymCrocodilus intermedius GRAVES 1819: 344
Crocodilus journei BORY 1824: 111 (nom. subst.)
Crocodilus Journei — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 129
Mecistops bathyrhynchus COPE 1861: 550
Crocodylus intermedius — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 142
Crocodylus intermedius — KING & BURKE 1989
Crocodylus intermedius — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 670
Crocodylus intermedius — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999 
DistributionColombia, Venezuela, Lesser Antilles (Grenada),
Trinidad ?, Tobago ?

Type locality: unknown (fide WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 7512. 
CommentSee also note on Crocodylus cataphractus.

Size: Total length up to ~ 7 m.

Phylogeny: This and other New World crocodiles are closely related to African C. niloticus, indicating a recent (Miocine or Pliocene) cross-Atlantic dispersal (MEREDITH et la. 2011). 
References
  • Barrio-Amorós, C.L. 2006. Crocodylus intermedius. Reptilia (GB) (49): 28-35 - get paper here
  • Brazaitis, P. 1971. Crocodylus intermedius Graves, a review of recent literature. Zoologica 56 (2):71-75
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Recent species of Emydosaurian reptiles represented in the Museum of the Academy. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia1860: 549-551 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.3. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Graves, M. L. 1819. Sur deux nouvelles espèces de crocodile. Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 2: 343-353.
  • Lutkin, C. 1888. Herpetologiske Bidrag I Om Crocodylus intermedius ag om en af Underslaegterne af Alligator-Slaegten. Vidensk. Meddel nat. For. Kjobenhaven 1884-1888: 61-80 - get paper here
  • Medem, F. 1976. Das Orinoko Korokodil, Crocodylus intermedius , in Kolumbien: Studien uber seine Naturgeschichte und Verbreitung. Natur und Museum 106 (8): 237-244
  • Meganathan, P.R.; Bhawna Dubey, Mark A. Batzer, David A. Ray, Ikramul Haque 2010. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of genus Crocodylus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia, Crocodylidae) and the taxonomic position of Crocodylus porosus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 (1): 393-402 - get paper here
  • Meredith, Robert W.; Evon R. Hekkala b, George Amato c, John Gatesy 2011. A phylogenetic hypothesis for Crocodylus (Crocodylia) based on mitochondrial DNA: Evidence for a trans-Atlantic voyage from Africa to the New World. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 183–191 - get paper here
  • Miles, Lee G.; Stacey L. Lance; Sally R. Isberg; <br />Chris Moran; Travis C. Glenn 2009. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in crocodilians: assessment and applications for the future. Conserv Genet. 10:935–954
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Sommerlad, R. 2011. Krokodile – Reptiliengiganten in Gefahr. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R.; Schmidt, F. & Ziegler, T. 2011. Threatened crocodiles in European zoos?. Reptilia (GB) ?: 12-17 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R.; Schmidt, F. & Ziegler, T. 2011. Bedrohte Krokodile in Europas zoologischen Gärten?. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 24-29 - get paper here
  • Thorbjarnarson, J.B.;Hernandez, G. 1992. Recent investigations of the status and distribution of the Orinoco crocodile Crocodylus intermedius in Venezuela. Biol. Cons. 62: 179-188
  • Thorbjarnarson,J.B. and R. Franz 1987. Crocodylus intermedius. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (406. - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their natural history and captive husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 48: 8-10]
  • Wermuth,H. & Fuchs,K. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Häute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York, 100 pages, [ISBN 3-437-30268-X]
  • Willis, Ray E. 2009. Transthyretin gene (TTR) intron 1 elucidates crocodylian phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (3): 1049-1054 - get paper here
 
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