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Crocodylus johnstoni KREFFT, 1873

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles)
Common NamesE: Freshwater Crocodile, Johnstone River Crocodile
G: Australienkrokodil, Süßwasserkrokodil 
SynonymCrocodylus johnsoni KREFFT 1873
Tomistoma kreffti GRAY in KREFFT 1873 (nomen nudum)
Crocodilus (Philas) johnstoni — GRAY 1874
Crocodilus Johnsoni — GARMAN 1901: 13
Philas johnstoni — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1984
Crocodylus johnstoni — COGGER 2000: 174
Crocodylus johnsoni — ZUG et al. 2001: 463
Crocodylus johnstoni — MILES et al. 2009
Oopholis (Philas) jackyhoserae HOSER 2012
Crocodylus johnstoni — ASH 2022 
DistributionNorthern Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia)

Type locality: "Cashmere, upper Herbert River, Qld" (= Queensland), Australia.  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesHolotype: AMS (AM) R134548 (formerly 4629) skeleton, AMS R134547 (formerly 4627) stuffed skin minus head from same specimen 
EtymologyNamed for Sub-Inspector Robert A. Johnstone. After receiving a letter from Krefft explaining the mistaken original spelling, Gray (1874) tried to correct the specific epithet to johnstoni; see also Boulenger (1889: 279). Unfortunately, in this instance the rules for correcting incorrect original spellings, Art. 32d of the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature, do not apply. A name based on a typographical error can be emended by subsequent authors without a ruling from the Intl. Comm. Zool. Nomen. However, Krefft used the name johnsoni several times in the original description so it clearly does not qualify as a typographical error. Until a successful appeal is made to the Intl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., the name must stand as originally published (after KING & BURKE 1989). However, the ASH (2022) argues that the emendation is correct following Article 33.3.1 of the Code. 
  • AIYER, ABHILASHA; BUNUBA RANGERS, TINA BELL, RICHARD SHINE, RUCHIRA SOMAWEERA, MILES BRUNY & GEORGIA WARD‐FEAR. 2022. Taking the bait: Developing a bait delivery system to target free‐ranging crocodiles and varanid lizards with a novel conservation strategy. Ecology and Evolution 12(6): 1–11. - get paper here
  • Australian Society of Herpetologists (ASH) 2022. Official List of Australian Species. ASH - get paper here
  • Beal, A.M. & G.J.W. Webb 1989. Effect of incubation temperature on tooth eruption in embryos of Crocodylus johnstoni Copeia 1989 (2): 325-331. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1889. Catalogue of the chelonians, rhynchocephalians, and crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). British Museum, London, 311 pp.
  • Christian, K., B. Green & R. Kennett 1996. Some Physiological Consequences of Estivation by Freshwater Crocodiles, Crocodylus johnstoni Journal of Herpetology 30 (1): 1-9. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Cornejo-Páramo, P., Lira-Noriega, A., Ramírez-Suástegui, C. et al. 2020. Sex determination systems in reptiles are related to ambient temperature but not to the level of climatic fluctuation. BMC Evol Biol 20: 103 - get paper here
  • DEEMING, D.C. 2022. Inter‐relationships among body mass, body dimensions, jaw musculature and bite force in reptiles. Journal of Zoology jzo.12981. - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1901. Some reptiles and batrachians from Australasia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 39: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1874. On Crocodilus johnstoni, Krefft. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1874: 177-178 - get paper here
  • Grießhammer, K. 2007. Crikey- Ein Besuch beim Australia zoo. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (67): 82-86 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R.T. 2012. A review of the taxonomy of the living crocodiles including the description of three new tribes, a new genus, and two new species. Australasian J. Herpetol. 14:9–16. - get paper here
  • Kaiser, H.; Crother, B.I.; Kelly, C.M.R.; Luiselli, L.; O’Shea, M.; Ota, H.; Passos, P.; Schleip, W.D. & Wüster, W. 2013. Best Practices: In the 21st Century, Taxonomic Decisions in Herpetology are Acceptable Only When Supported by a Body of Evidence and Published via Peer-Review. Herpetological Review 44 (1): 8-23
  • King, F. Wayne & Burke, Russel L. 1989. Crocodilian, Tuatara, and Turtles Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. [type catalogue] Assoc. Syst. Coll., Washington, DC, xxii + 216 pp.
  • Krefft,G. 1873. Remarks on Australian crocodiles, and description of a new species. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1873: 334-335 - get paper here
  • Longman, H.A. 1925. Crocodilus johnstoni Krefft. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 8: 95-102 - get paper here
  • Meganathan, P.R.; Bhawna Dubey, Mark A. Batzer, David A. Ray, Ikramul Haque 2010. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of genus Crocodylus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia, Crocodylidae) and the taxonomic position of Crocodylus porosus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 (1): 393-402 - get paper here
  • Miles, Lee G.; Stacey L. Lance; Sally R. Isberg; Chris Moran; Travis C. Glenn 2009. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in crocodilians: assessment and applications for the future. Conservation Genetics. 10:935–954 - get paper here
  • Nickel, H. & Auliya, M. 2004. Krokodile - faszinierende Überlebenskünstler. Draco 5 (20): 4-19 - get paper here
  • PAN, TAO; JIA-SHUN MIAO, HUA-BIN ZHANG, PENG YAN, PING-SHIN LEE, XIN-YUE JIANG, JIA-HUI OUYANG, YOU-PENG DENG, BAO-WEI ZHANG & XIAO-BING WU. 2021. Near-complete phylogeny of extant Crocodylia (Reptilia) using mitogenome-based data. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 191(4): 1075–1089. - get paper here
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40 - get paper here
  • Ross, C.A. (Hrsg.) 2002. Krokodile und Alligatoren. [English original published in 1996]. Orbis, München, 240 pp.
  • Rössel, D. 2010. Gefährliche Tiere in Berlin ... Reptilia (Münster) 15 (82): 3,6 - get paper here
  • Seebacher, F. & G.C. Grigg 1997. Patterns of body Temperature in Wild Freshwater Crocodiles, Crocodylus johnstoni: Thermoregulation versus Thermoconformity, Seasonal Acclimization, and the Effect of Social Interactions Copeia 1997 (3): 549-557. - get paper here
  • Somaweera, Ruchira and Richard Shine 2012. Australian Freshwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) Transport Their Hatchlings to the Water. Journal of Herpetology 46 (3): 407-411. - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. 2011. Krokodile – Reptiliengiganten in Gefahr. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Strimple, Peter D. 1995. Australia's freshwater crocodile. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine 1995 (Sept./Oct.): 66-75
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their natural history and captive husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 48: 8-10]
  • Tucker, A.D. 2010. The correct name to be applied to the Australian freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus johnstoni (Krefft 1873). Australian Zoologist 35 (2):432-434 - get paper here
  • Tucker, A.D. & C.J. Limpus 1997. Assessment of Reproductive Status in Australian Freshwater Crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) by Ultrasound Imaging Copeia 1997 (4): 851-857. - get paper here
  • Tucker, A.D., C.J. Limpus, H.I. McCallum & K.R. McDonald 1996. Ontogenetic dietary partitioning by Crocodylus johnstoni during the dry season Copeia 1996 (4): 978-988. - get paper here
  • Tucker, A.D.; McCallum, H.I.; Limpus, C.J. 1997. Habitat use by Crocodylus johnstoni in the Lynd river, Queensland. Journal of Herpetology 31 (1): 114-121 - get paper here
  • Webb, G.J.W.;Manolis, S.C.;Buckworth, R. 1983. Crocodylus johnstoni in the McKinlay River area, NT II Dry season habitat selection and an estimate of the total population size. Aust. Wildl. Res. 10: 373-382 - get paper here
  • Wells R W; Wellington C R 1984. A synopsis of the class Reptilia in Australia. Australian Journal of Herpetology 1 (3-4): 73-129 [31 Dec 1983 on cover]
  • Wermuth,H. & Fuchs,K. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Häute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York, 100 pages, [ISBN 3-437-30268-X]
  • Whitehead, P.J. 1990. Yolk depletion and metabolic rate of hatchling Crocodylus johnstoni Copeia 1990 (3): 871-875. - get paper here
  • Willis, Ray E. 2009. Transthyretin gene (TTR) intron 1 elucidates crocodylian phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (3): 1049-1054 - get paper here
  • Zug,G.R.; Vitt, L.J. & Caldwell, J.P. 2001. Herpetology, 2nd ed. Academic Press San Diego, London, [...]XIV + 630 pp.
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