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Crocodylus niloticus LAURENTI, 1768

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles) 
SubspeciesCrocodylus niloticus niloticus LAURENTI 1768
Crocodylus niloticus africanus LAURENTI 1768
Crocodylus niloticus chamses BORY 1824
Crocodylus niloticus cowiei (SMITH in HEWITT 1937)
Crocodylus niloticus madagascariensis GRANDIDIER 1872
Crocodylus niloticus pauciscutatus DERANIYAGALA 1948 
Common NamesE: Nile crocodile
G: Nilkrokodil 
SynonymCrocodylus niloticus LAURENTI 1768: 53
Lacerta crocodila — SHAW & NODDER 1800: plate 428
Crocodilus vulgaris CUVIER 1807: 40
Crocodilus multiscutatus RÜPPELL in CRETZSCHMAR 1826: 99
Crocodilus marginatus GEOFFROY 1827: 260
Crocodilus vulgaris — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 104
Crocodilus vulgaris — BAIKIE 1857: 378 (?)
Crocodilus vulgaris — MURRAY 1863
Crocodilus madagascariensis GRANDIDIER 1872 (nom. nud.)
Crocodilus vulgaris var. madagascariensis BOETTGER 1877
Crocodilus vulgaris — FISCHER 1884: 18
Crocodylus niloticus — SCHMIDT 1919: 419
Crocodylus niloticus — AUERBACH 1987: 78
Crocodylus niloticus — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 230
Crocodylus niloticus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008

Crocodylus niloticus cowiei (SMITH in HEWITT 1937)
Alligator cowiei SMITH in HEWITT 1937: 2
Crocodylus niloticus cowiei — FUcHS 1974
Crocodylus niloticus cowiei — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 144

Crocodylus niloticus niloticus LAURENTI 1768
Crocodylus niloticus LAURENTI 1768: 53
Crocodilus vulgaris CUVIER 1807: 40
Crocodilus multiscutatus RÜPPELL in CRETZSCHMAR 1826: 99
Crocodilus marginatus GEOFFROY 1827: 260
Crocodilus lacunosus GEOFFROY 1827: 261
Crocodilus complanatus GEOFFROY 1827: 263
Crocodilus octophractus RÜPPELL in GRAY in GRIFFITH 1831: 22
Crocodilus hexaphractos RÜPPELL in SCHMIDT 1886 (nomen nudum)
Crocodylus niloticus niloticus — FUCHS 1974: 124

Crocodylus niloticus pauciscutatus DERANIYAGALA 1948
Crocodylus niloticus pauciscutatus — LANZA 1988 
DistributionAngola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Nosy Faly, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape etc.), Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

pauciscutatus; Somalia (Shebelli and Juba rivers), Ethiopia, Kenya

Type locality: India and Egypt; restricted by Fuchs et al. (1974) to "Ägypten" (= Egypt). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: not located (fide King & Burke 1989)
Holotype: SMF 28161 [octophractus]
Holotype: SMF 28161 [multiscutatus] 
CommentDistribution: Fairly recently extirpated from Israel, and less recently (beginning of the 19th century) from the Comoro islands. These latter extinctions were also due to an increase in aridification and thus a decrease in suitable habitat. Records for Seychelles are erroneous. These were demonstrated to be C. porosus (Gerlach & Canning 1996). Not in Benin fide ULLENBRUCH et al. 2010.

Subspecies after WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977.

Taxonomy: Mitochondrial DNA analyses by SCHMITZ et al. (2003) consistently revealed two groups of C. niloticus, one consisting of the monophyletic West- and Central African populations and the other of a paraphyletic group containing the East African and Madagascan populations. High genetic divergence between

those groups indicates separation on the species level.

Behavior: Vergne and Mathevon (2008) present the first experimental evidence that pre-hatching calls of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) juveniles are informative acoustic signals which indeed target both siblings and mother.

Type species: Crocodilus vulgaris CUVIER 1807 is the type species of the genus Crocodylus LAURENTI 1768.

Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic name Oxycrocodylus Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected its use instead of Crocodylus. 
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