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Crocodylus palustris (LESSON, 1831)

IUCN Red List - Crocodylus palustris - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles) 
Common NamesE: Mugger crocodile, Swamp crocodile, Marsh crocodile
G: Sumpfkrokodil 
SynonymCrocodilus palustris LESSON 1831
Crocodylus palustris — KING & BURKE 1989
Crocodylus palustris — ZIESMANN et al. 2007
Crocodylus palustris kimbula — HARPORT 2015 
DistributionBangladesh, Iran, India (Gujarat, Rajasthan, Kerala etc.), Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, possibly areas of Indochina

Type locality: Mainland India; restricted to Ganges by Lesson (1834: 305) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: BMNH (and possibly additional specimens). 
CommentThe common name, “mugger” is a corruption of the Hindi word “magar”, meaning “monster of the waters”. 
  • Avadhani, R. 2006. The Mugger, Crocodylus palustris, monster of the waters. Reptilia (GB) (45): 66-69 - get paper here
  • Bhatnagar, Chhaya & Meenakshi Mahur 2010. Observations on feeding behavior of a wild population of Marsh Crocodile in Baghdarrah Lake, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Reptile Rap (10): 16-18 - get paper here
  • Burn, P.E. 1908. Notes on the Common Indian Crocodile (Crocodilus palustris). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 689 - get paper here
  • De Silva, M. C. et al. 2011. Mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris Lesson, 1831) preys on a radiated tortoise in Sri Lanka. Taprobanica 3 (1): 38-41 - get paper here
  • Dinets, Vladimir. 2011. Crocodylus palustris (mugger crocodile) signaling behavior. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 424 - get paper here
  • Feng, Ge; Wu, Xiaobing; Yan, Peng; Li, Xiaoqiang 2010. Two complete mitochondrial genomes of Crocodylus and implications for crocodilians phylogeny. Amphibia-Reptilia 31: 299-309 - get paper here
  • Gramentz, D. 2011. Gefährdung und „Schutz“ des Sumpfkrokodils (Crocodylus palustris) und des Leistenkrokodils (Crocodylus porosus) auf Sri Lanka. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 36-45 - get paper here
  • Harport, V. 2015. Eine Rundreise durch Sri Lanka Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 84-94 - get paper here
  • Janzen, P.; Klaas, P. & Ziesmann, S. 2007. Krokodile und Schildkröten auf Sri Lanka. Draco 7 (30): 45-49 - get paper here
  • Karunarathna, Suranjan; D. M. S. and A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe 2011. A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE REPTILE FAUNA IN NILGALA FOREST AND ITS VICINITY, MONARAGALA DISTRICT, SRI LANKA. Taprobanica 3 (02): 69-76
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Lesson, R.P. 1831. Catalogue des Reptiles qui font partie d'une Collection zoologique recueille dans l'Inde continentale ou en Afrique, et apportée en France par M. Lamare-Piquot. Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de Géologie, Paris. 25 (2): 119-123 - get paper here
  • Lesson, R.P. 1834. Reptiles. pp. 291-336, pls. 1-7. In: I.G.S. Bélanger (ed.), Voyage aux Indes-Orientales, par le Nord de l'Europe, les Provinces du Caucase, la Géorgie, l'Armenie, et la Perse, . . . pendant les années 1825-29. Zoologie. A. Bertrand, Paris. xxxix + 535 p. [published in sections from 1831-1834]
  • Meganathan, P.R.; Bhawna Dubey, Mark A. Batzer, David A. Ray, Ikramul Haque 2010. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of genus Crocodylus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia, Crocodylidae) and the taxonomic position of Crocodylus porosus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 (1): 393-402 - get paper here
  • Miles, Lee G.; Stacey L. Lance; Sally R. Isberg; <br />Chris Moran; Travis C. Glenn 2009. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in crocodilians: assessment and applications for the future. Conserv Genet. 10:935–954
  • Nickel, H. & Auliya, M. 2004. Krokodile - faszinierende Überlebenskünstler. Draco 5 (20): 4-19 - get paper here
  • Palot, M.J. 2015. A checklist of reptiles of Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(13): 8010–8022 - get paper here
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40
  • Pitman, C.R.S. 1913. Marsh Crocodile (Crocodilus palustris) killing a Panther (Felis pardus). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 641 - get paper here
  • Pitman, C.R.S. 1913. The Contents of a Marsh Crocodile's (Crocodilus palustris) Stomach,. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 641 - get paper here
  • Radke, R. 2002. Krokodile - Expeditionen zu den Erben der Saurier. Gustav Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach, 288 pp.
  • Rao, L. et al. 2009. Cytogenetic Characterization and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization of (GATA) 10 Repeats on Established Primary Cell Cultures from Indian Water Snake (Natrix piscator) and Indian Mugger (Crocodylus palustris) Embryos. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 287–296
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Sharma, Rishikish K. 2006. Status of Mugger Crocodylus palustris in protected areas of Madhya Pradesh. Herpinstance 4(1):2-7
  • Shrestha, Tej Kumar 2005. Wildlife of Nepal: A Study of Renewable Resources of Nepal Himalayas. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 720 pp.
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their natural history and captive husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 48: 8-10]
  • Vyas, Raju 2007. Herptofauna of Puma Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat, India. Reptile Rap (8): 10-15 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2010. Mugger (Crocodylus palustris) population in and around Vadodara City, Gujarat State, India. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (1): 43-50 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2011. Is it possible to create a safe habitat for muggers of Vishwamitri River, Gujarat State, India?. Reptile Rap (12): 9-11 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2014. Roads and Railway: Cause for Mortality of Muggers (Crocodylus palustris), Gujarat State, India. Russ. J. Herpetol. 21 (3): 237-240 - get paper here
  • Wermuth,H. & Fuchs,K. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Häute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York, 100 pages, [ISBN 3-437-30268-X]
  • Whitaker, R.;Whitaker, Z. 1977. Note on natural history of Crocodylus palustris. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 74: 358-360 - get paper here
  • Willis, Ray E. 2009. Transthyretin gene (TTR) intron 1 elucidates crocodylian phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (3): 1049-1054 - get paper here
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