You are here » home advanced search Crotalus atrox

Crotalus atrox BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853

IUCN Red List - Crotalus atrox - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Crotalus atrox?

Add your own observation of
Crotalus atrox »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake
G: Texas-Klapperschlange, Westliche Diamantklapperschlange
E: Tortuga Island Rattlesnake [tortugensis] 
SynonymCrotalus atrox BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 5
? Crotalus confluentus SAY 1823: 48
? Crotalus confluentus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1476
Crotalus confluentus — TRÉCUL 1876: 440
Crotalus confluentus BOULENGER 1896
Crotalus tortugensis VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921 (fide CASTOE et al. 2007)
Crotalus confluentus — BURT 1935
Crotalus atrox — STEBBINS 1985: 226
Crotalus atrox — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 235
Crotalus atrox — LINER 1994
Crotalus tortugensis — LINER 1994
Crotalus tortugensis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 296
Crotalus atrox — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 277
Crotalus tortugensis — BEAMAN & SPENCER 2004
Hoserea atrox — HOSER 2009
Hoserea tortugensis — HOSER 2009 
DistributionCanada (Alberta, Saskatchewan, British Columbia),
USA (SE California, S Nevada [A Heindl, pers. comm.], Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas),
Mexico (Hidalgo, Mexico [HR 35: 190], Quéretaro)

Type locality: "Indianola" [Indianola, Calhoun County, Texas, USA].

tortugensis: Mexico (Isla Tortuga in the Gulf of California); Holotype: CAS 50515 Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: USNM 
CommentVenomous! Crotalus atrox is responsible for most casualties through snakebite in North America.

Reproduction: viviparous. C. atrox and C. horridus may hybridize in nature (Meike t al. 2008).

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011.

Synonymy: AMARAL 1929 synonymed C. tortugensis with C. atrox.

Love (2013) reports melanism in C. atrox. 
References
  • Amaral,A. do 1929. Studies of nearctic ophidia IV. On Crotalus tortugensis VANDENBURGH AND SLEVIN, 1921, Crotalus atrox elegans SCHMIDT, 1922, and Crotalus atrox lucasensis (VANDEBURGH, 1920). Bull. Antivenin Inst. Amer. 2 (4): 85-86
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp.
  • Bateman, Heather L.; Alice Chung-MacCoubrey, Howard L. Snell, and Deborah M. Finch 2009. Abundance and Species Richness of Snakes along the Middle Rio Grande Riparian Forest in New Mexico. Herp. Cons. Biol. 4: 1 - get paper here
  • Beaman, K.R. and C.L. Spencer 2004. Crotalus tortugensis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (798): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Beaupre, Steven J. 1995. Sexual size dimorphism in the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox): integrating natural history, behavior, and physiology Sonoran Herpetologist 8 (11): 112-121
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Cabellero GAsca, F.J. 2007. Haltung und Nachzucht der Westlichen Diamantklapperschlange. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 26-31 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Chiszar, David; Adam Walters, and Hobart M Smith 2008. Rattlesnake Preference for Envenomated Prey: Species Specificity. Journal of Herpetology 42 (4): 764 - get paper here
  • Clark RW, Schuett GW, Repp RA, Amarello M, Smith CF, et al. 2014. Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. PLoS ONE 9(3): e90616. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090616 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Cunningham, John D. 1966. Field Observations on the Thermal Relations of Rattlesnakes. Southwestern Naturalist 11 (1): 140-142 - get paper here
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2010. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF THE STATE OF QUERETARO, MEXICO. Tlalnepantla UNAM, 428 pp.
  • Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • FLESCH, AARON D.; DON E. SWANN, DALE S. TURNER, AND BRIAN F. POWELL 2010. HERPETOFAUNA OF THE RINCON MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA. Southwestern Naturalist 55(2):240–253 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Irwin, Kelly J. 2004. Arkansas Snake Guide. Arkansas Game & Fish Commission, Little Rock, 50 pp.
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1930. Differential characteristics of Southwestern rattlesnakes allied to Crotalus atrox Bulletins of the Zoological Society of San Diego (6): 1-74
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1952. Proposed use of the plenary powers to preserve for the Western Diamond Rattlesnake the trivial name "atrox" Baird & Girard, 1853 (as published in the combination "Crotalus atrox") by suppressing the trivial name "cinereous" Le Conte in Hallowell, 185 Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 6: 234-238 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Lawrence M. 1943. The correlation of variability within and between rattlesnake populations Copeia 1943 (2): 115-118 - get paper here
  • Kornacker, P.M. & U. Dederichs 2009. Der Big-Bend-Nationalpark und seine Reptilien. Teil 2: Schlangen. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (75): 51-57 - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Love, B. 2013. Der weiße Zauber Reptilia (Münster) 18 (104): 76-77 - get paper here
  • Mccrady, W.B.;Murphy, J.B.;Garrett, C.M.;Roberts, D.T. 1994. Scale Variation in a Laboratory Colony of Amelanistic Diamondback Rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) Zoo Biology 13 (2): 95-106
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Meik, J.M.; Fontenot, B.E.; Franklin, C.J. & King, C. 2008. APPARENT NATURAL HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN THE RATTLESNAKES CROTALUS ATROX AND C. HORRIDUS. Southwestern Naturalist 53(2):196–200 - get paper here
  • Meik, Jesse M and André Pires-daSilva 2009. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:35 - get paper here
  • Moon, B.R. & Ivanyi, C.S. & Johnson, J. 2004. Identifying individual rattlesnakes using tail pattern variation. Herpetological Review 35 (2): 154-156 - get paper here
  • Murphy, James B.;Joy, John E, Jr.;Shadduck, John A. 1976. Colonic torsion in a western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. Journal of Herpetology 9 (2): 248 - get paper here
  • Murphy, James B.;Rehg, Jerold E.;Maderson, Paul F. A.;McCrady, William B. 1987. Scutellation and pigmentation defects in a laboratory colony of western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox): Mode of inheritance Herpetologica 43 (3): 292-300 - get paper here
  • Painter, Charles W. 1998. Geographic distribution. Crotalus atrox Herpetological Review 29 (4): 249 - get paper here
  • Painter, Charles W.;Fitzgerald, Lee A.;Heinrich, Mark L. 1999. Crotalus atrox (Western Diamondback Rattlesnake). Morphology Herpetological Review 30 (1): 44 - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Place, Aaron J. and Charles I. Abramson. 2008. Habituation of the Rattle Response in Western Diamondback Rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox. Copeia 2008 (4): 835-843 - get paper here
  • Reynolds, R.P. & Scott Jr., N.J. 1982. Use of a Mammalian Resource by a Chihuahuan Snake Community. In: Scott, N.J. (ed.) Herpetological communities [an SSAR symposium]. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Wildl. Res. Rep. 13: 99-118
  • Savitzky, Alan H. and Brad R. Moon 2008. Tail Morphology in the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 269: 935–944
  • Say, T. 1823. In James, E. Account of an expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819, '20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. Vol. 2. Philadelphia, H. C. Carey & I. Lea.
  • Schmidt, D. 2004. Nordamerikas König der Klapperschlangen - Crotalus atrox. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (45): 82-87 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, D. 2004. Nordamerikas König der Klapperschlangen, Crotalus atrox. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (46): 74-79 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Dieter 2008. Die Texasklapperschlange Crotalus atrox. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 64 pp. - get paper here
  • Skubowius, Bernd 2012. Crotalus atrox – aktuelle Einsichten in das Leben eines alten Bekannten Draco 13 (51): 34-42 - get paper here
  • Skubowius, Bernd 2012. Auf Schlangensuche in Arizona Draco 13 (50): 62-69 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Thompson, J.C. 1913. Contributions to the Anatomy of the Ophidia. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1913: 414-426 - get paper here
  • Trauth, S. E.;Cochran, B. G. 1992. In search of western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox) in Arkansas Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 27 (4): 89-94 - get paper here
  • Trécul, M.A. 1876. On the capture of rattlesnakes, and on the association of these serpents with a small owl and a little marmot. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 18: 439 - get paper here
  • Turnipseed, Glyn 1993. Crotalus atrox (Western diamondback rattlesnake). USA: Arkansas Herpetological Review 24 (4): 155 - get paper here
  • VALENCIA-HERNÁNDEZ, Ángel Alberto; Irene GOYENECHEA <br />& Jesús Martín CASTILLO-CERÓN 2007. NOTES ON SCUTELLATION, LENGTH, AND DISTRIBUTION OF RATTLESNAKES (SERPENTES: VIPERIDADE: CROTALUS) IN THE STATE OF HIDALGO, MEXICO. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 23(3):29-33
  • Van Denburgh, J.; Slevin, J. R. 1921. Preliminary diagnoses of more new species of reptiles from islands in the gulf of California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 11 (17): 395-398 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Werler, John E.&; James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
  • Winchell, S. 2007. Klapperschlangen! Die Gattung Crotalus. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 18-25 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W. & Bérnils, R.S. 2011. On the generic classification of the rattlesnakes, with special reference to the Neotropical Crotalus durissus complex (Squamata: Viperidae). ZOOLOGIA 28 (4): 417–419
  • Yancey, Franklin D. 1996. Geographic Distribution. Crotalus atrox Herpetological Review 27 (3): 154 - get paper here
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:


Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator