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Crotalus culminatus KLAUBER, 1952

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Northwestern Neotropical Rattlesnake
S: Shunu 
SynonymCrotalus durissus culminatus KLAUBER 1952: 65
Crotalus loeflingii HUMBOLDT 1811
Crotalus durissus culminatus — DAVIS & SMITH 1953
Crotalus durissus culminatus — CAMARILLO-RANGEL 1983
Crotalus simus culminatus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus culminatus — WÜSTER et al. 2005
Crotalus culminatus — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006
Caudisona culminatus — HOSER 2009
Crotalus culminatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 189 
DistributionMexico (Michoacan, Oaxaca, Morelos, México, Puebla, Guerrero)

Type locality: Type locality: "Hacienda ... El Sabino near
Uruapan, Michoacan, Mexico."  
TypesHolotype: FMNH 126616 (formerly EHT-HMS 5224); Paratype SDNHM = SDSNH 43403 
CommentNomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011.

Species group: Crotalus durissus complex, which includes durissus, simus, culminatus, and tzabcan. 
  • ARÉCHAGA-OCAMPO, SAMUEL; EDGAR E. NERI-CASTRO, CARLOS A. MONTALBÁN-HUIDOBRO & RUBÉN ALONSO CARBAJAL-MÁRQUEZ. 2021. CROTALUS CULMINATUS (Northwestern Middle American Rattlesnake). DIET. Herpetological Review 52 (3): 662–663. - get paper here
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
  • Camarillo Rangel, J.L. 1983. New herpetological records from the state of Mexico. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 19(2):39-46 - get paper here
  • Campbell, Jonathan A. and William W. Lamar 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere, 2 vols. Comstock (Cornell University Press), Ithaca, NY, 962 pp. [review in Science 305: 182]
  • CARBAJAL-MÁRQUEZ, RUBÉN ALONSO; JOSÉ ROGELIO CEDEÑO-VÁZQUEZ, ARELY MARTÍNEZ-ARCE, EDGAR NERI-CASTRO, SALIMA C. MACHKOUR- M’RABET 2020. Accessing cryptic diversity in Neotropical rattlesnakes (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalus) with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 4729 (4): 451–481 - get paper here
  • Davis, William B.; Smith, Hobart M. 1953. Snakes of the Mexican state of Morelos. Herpetologica 8: 133-149 - get paper here
  • García-Padilla, E., Mata-Silva, V., Villalobos-Juárez, I., López-Esquivel, E. A., Lavariega, M. C., Rocha, A., DeSantis, D. L., Melgar-Martínez, A. I., Johnson, J. D., Fucsko, L. A., Lazcano, D., & Wilson, L. D. 2022. Anfibios y reptiles de la región de los Chimalapas, Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México:: composición, categorización distribucional, estado de conservación y significado para la biodiversidad. Biología Y Sociedad, 5(10), 37–76 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian J. Herpetol. 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1952. Taxonomic studies on rattlesnakes of Mainland Mexico. Bulletins of the Zoological Society of San Diego (26): 1-143 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the State of Mexico, Mexico with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 953: 137-159 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A conservation checklist of the herpetofauna of Morelos, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 941: 121-144 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, V; Rocha, A; Mata-González, S; Ramírez-Bautista, A; Berriozabal-Islas, C; García-Padilla, E; Johnson, J D & Wilson, L D; 2019. First municipality records and additional information on the herpetofauna of Oaxaco, Mexico. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 533-536 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo, Thalia E. Cruz-Machuca and J. Diego Arias-Montiel. 2016. Crotalus culminatus (Klauber, 1952). Mexico, Estado de México. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3(4): 1067–1068 - get paper here
  • Peralta-Fonseca, Zabdiel A. and Elí García-Padilla 2015. Crotalus culminatus (Klauber, 1952). Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (2): 208 - get paper here
  • Quijada-Mascareñas & Wüster, W. 2006. Crotalus durissus complex: from Yucatan to Patagonia: the natural history of the Neotropical rattlesnake. Reptilia (GB) (49): 66-73 - get paper here
  • Quijada-Mascareñas & Wüster, W. 2006. On the Origins and Dispersal of Neotropical Rattlesnakes in South America. CAH/ACH Bulletin 14 (1): 6-12 - get paper here
  • RAMÍREZ-RAMÍREZ, V. A., MORALES-SÁNCHEZ, A. R. I. A. N. A., RAMÍREZ-RAMÍREZ, J. O. R. G. E., & MARTÍNEZ-CORONEL, M. A. T. I. A. S. 2023. First Geographic Distribution Records for Amphibians and Reptiles from the Jiménez Area, Municipality of San Marcos, Guerrero, México. Herpetological Review, 54(2), 251-254
  • Riaño-García, M., E. García-Padilla, V. Mata-Silva, D. L. DeSantis, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. Crotalus culminatus Klauber, 1952. Mexico, Oaxaca. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(1): 202–203 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W. & Bérnils, R.S. 2011. On the generic classification of the rattlesnakes, with special reference to the Neotropical Crotalus durissus complex (Squamata: Viperidae). ZOOLOGIA 28 (4): 417–419 - get paper here
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