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Crotalus durissus LINNAEUS, 1758

IUCN Red List - Crotalus durissus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesCrotalus durissus cumanensis HUMBOLDT 1811
Crotalus durissus durissus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Crotalus durissus marajoensis (HOGE 1966)
Crotalus durissus ruruima (HOGE 1965)
Crotalus durissus terrificus (LAURENTI 1768)
Crotalus durissus trigonicus (HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978)
Crotalus durissus unicolor VAN LIDTH DE JEUDE 1887
Crotalus durissus vegrandis KLAUBER 1941 
Common NamesE: Cascabel Rattlesnake; unicolor: Aruba Island Rattlesnake; vegrandis: Uracoan Rattlesnake
G: Cascabel-Tropische - Schauer-Klapperschlange
NL: Zuid-Amerikaanse Ratelslang, Surinamse ratelslang 
SynonymCrotalus durissus LINNAEUS 1758: 214
Crotalus durissus — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 1
Crotalus durissus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1463
Crotalus durissus — LINER 1994
Crotalus durissus maricelae GARCÍA-PÉREZ 1995 (nom. nud.)
Crotalus durissus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 279
Crotalus durissus maricelae — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006
Caudisona durissus — HOSER 2009
Crotalus durissus — WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011
Caudisona durissa — HAMDAN et al. 2012
Crotalus durissus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 189

Crotalus durissus cumanensis HUMBOLDT 1811
Crotalus cumanensis HUMBOLDT 1811
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — KORNACKER 1997
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — ESQUEDA et al. 2001
Crotalus durissus cumanensis — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006

Crotalus durissus dryinas LINNAEUS 1758
Crotalus dryinas LINNAEUS 1758: 214 (part.)
Crotalus durissus dryinas — HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus dryinus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980

Crotalus durissus marajoensis HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus marajoensis HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus marajoensis — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006

Crotalus durissus pifanorum SANDNER-MONTILLA 1980
Crotalus pifanorum SANDNER-MONTILLA 1980
Crotalus pifanorum — LANCINI & KORNACKER 1989: 293
Crotalus durissus pifanorum — KORNACKER 1999: 174
Crotalus durissus pifanorum — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus durissus pifanorum — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006

Crotalus durissus ruruima HOGE 1965
Crotalus durissus ruruima HOGE 1965
Crotalus terrificus ruruima - SANDNER-MONTILLA 1980
Crotalus durissus ruruima — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006

Crotalus durissus terrificus (LAURENTI 1768)
Caudisona terrifica LAURENTI 1768
Crotalus cascavella WAGLER 1824: 60 (fide WÜSTER et al. 2005)
Crotalus terrificus - BOULENGER 1896
Crotalus terrificus — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 153
Crotalus terrificus var. collilineatus AMARAL 1926
Crotalus durissus terrificus KLAUBER 1936
Crotalus terrificus terrificus - SERIÉ 1936
Crotalus terrificus var. collirhombeatus AMARAL
Crotalus terrificus crotaminicus GONÇALVES 1956
Crotalus durissus cascavella — HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus collilineatus — HOGE 1966
Crotalus durissus terrificus - PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Crotalus durissus terrificus - CEI 1993
Crotalus durissus terrificus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 38
Crotalus terrificus — BÉRNILS et al. 2001
Crotalus durissus terrificus — WÜSTER et al. 2005

Crotalus durissus trigonicus HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978
Crotalus durissus trigonicus HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978
Crotalus durissus trigonicus — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006

Crotalus durissus unicolor VAN LIDTH DE JEUDE 1887
Crotalus horridus var. unicolor VAN LIDTH DE JEUDE 1887: 133
Crotalus unicolor — KLAUBER 1936
Crotalus durissus unicolor — DAAN & HILLENIUS 1966: 137
Crotalus unicolor — MCCRANIE 1986
Crotalus durissus unicolor — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989
Crotalus durissus unicolor — WELCH 1994: 45
Crotalus unicolor — MCCRANIE 1986
Crotalus durissus unicolor — MCDIARMID et al. 1999
Crotalus durissus unicolor — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus durissus unicolor — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006
Caudisona unicolor — HOSER 2009

Crotalus durissus vegrandis KLAUBER 1941
Crotalus vegrandis KLAUBER 1941: 334
Crotalus durissus vegrandis KLAUBER 1956
Crotalus vegrandis HOGE 1966
Crotalus vegrandis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 77
Crotalus durissus vegrandis — WELCH 1994: 45
Crotalus vegrandis — KORNACKER 1999: 175
Crotalus durissus vegrandis — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus durissus vegrandis — QUIJADA-MASCAREÑAS & WÜSTER 2006
Caudisona vegrandis — HOSER 2009
Crotalus vegrandis — RIVAS et al. 2012
Crotalus vegrandis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 196 
DistributionMexico (Campeche, Hidalgo, Tamaulipas etc.), Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica,
Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Roraima, Amapá, Roraima, Goias, and many others), Venezuela (Cojedes), Colombia, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, N Argentina (Mendoza, La Pampa, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Fe, Córdoba, La Rioja, Catamarca, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán, Chaco, Formosa, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Misiones), Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay, Aruba I

durissus: Guyana

cascavella: Brazil (Maranhao, Ceara, Piaui, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Rio grande do Norte, Bahia)

collilineatus: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Goyas, Minas Gerais, NW Sao Paulo)

cumanensis: Venezuela, Colombia, maybe West Guyana, Isla Margarita.

dryinas: Brazil (Amapa), northern coast of the Guianas

cumanensis: Venezuela, NE Colombia

marajoensis: Brazil (Marajo)

ruruima: Venezuela, adjacent Brazil

terrificus: S Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia

trigonicus: Brazil (Roraima), SW Guyana

unicolor: Aruba Island (off the coast of Venezuela)

vegrandis: E Venezuela; Type locality: Uracoa, District Sotillo, Maturin, Estado Monagas, Venezuela.

Type locality: “America” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: FMNH, Paratype SDSNH 43403 [culminatus]
Holotype: CM, Paratype SDSNH 34607 [vegrandis] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy for terrificus after CEI 1993. MCDIARMID et al. (1999) list C. pifanorum as synonym of C. durissus. Esqueda et al. (2001) suggested that C. maricelae is a nomen nudum and that this population does not deserve recognition because all diagnostic characters fall within the variation range of C. d. cumanensis. La Marca and Soriano (2004) considered Crotalus maricelae a valid taxon, using the same characters mentioned in the original description. We follow Campbell and Lamar (2004) in considering this taxon a synonym of Crotalus durissus. RIVAS et al. 2012 consider C. vegrandis a full species mostly based on the following morphological differences: smaller length, peculiar colour pattern composed of gray and/or reddish brown ground colour with large white flecks distributed as irregular rings (vs rhomboidal blotches in C. durissus).

Subspecies: Crotalus durissus culminatus (KLAUBER 1952) and Crotalus durissus tzabcan (KLAUBER 1952) have been re-assigned to C. simus by CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004.

Distribution: CAMPBELL & LAMAR (2004) consider the likely type locality of Linnaeus's durissus to have been the Guyanan region of South America, not Mexico, and they reject Smith & Taylor's restriction of the type locality to Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. In consequence, all the South American forms of the complex treated as subspecies of Crotalus durissus, and the populations from coastal Guyana, Suriname and French Guyana, formerly known as C. durissus dryinas, become C. durissus durissus.

Reproduction: viviparous.

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
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