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Crotalus enyo (COPE, 1861)

IUCN Red List - Crotalus enyo - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesCrotalus enyo cerralvensis CLIFF 1954
Crotalus enyo furvus LOWE & NORRIS 1954
Crotalus enyo enyo (COPE 1861) 
Common NamesE: Lower California Rattlesnake (furvus: Rosario Rattlesnake; cerralvensis: Cerralvo Rattlesnake; enyo: Baja California Rattlesnake)
G: Baja-Klapperschlange
S: Cascabel de Baja California 
SynonymCrotalus enyo enyo (COPE 1861)
Caudisona enyo COPE 1861
Crotalus enyo enyo LOWE & NORRIS 1954
Crotalus enyo — STEBBINS 1985: 246
Crotalus enyo — LINER 1994
Crotalus enyo cerralvensis CLIFF 1954 (fide GRISMER 1999)
Crotalus enyo — WELCH 1994: 45
Crotalus enyo — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 283
Caudisona (Pillotus) enyo — HOSER 2009
Crotalus enyo — WALLACH et al. 2014: 190

Crotalus enyo cerralvensis CLIFF 1954: 82
Crotalus enyo cerralvensis — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008

Crotalus enyo furvus LOWE & NORRIS 1954
Crotalus enyo furvus — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008

Crotalus enyo enyo (COPE 1861)
Caudisona enyo COPE 1861
Crotalus enyo enyo — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008 
DistributionMexico (Baja California)

cerralvensis: Cerralvo Island (Gulf of California); Type locality: Type locality: "Isla Cerralvo in Gulf of California" [Cerralvo Island, Gulf of California, Mexico].

furvus: Baja California (west coast, from San Telmo River to El Rosariao); Type locality: "10.9 miles (by road) north of EI Rosario, along the main road on the coastwise terrace near the foot of a bold Cretaceous escarpment, Baja California Norte, Mexico."

enyo: Mexico (Baja California); Type locality: “Lower California."  
TypesLectotype: ANSP 7159 (wet skin), designated by Beaman and Grismer (1994), paralectotype: USNM 5291. See also discussion in MCDIARMID et al. 1999.
Holotype: CAS-SUR 14021 [cerralvensis]
Holotype: MVZ 55388 [furvus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (furvus). A distinctive subspecies distinguished from the pallid C. e. enyo by a very dark brown ground color and darker blotches and spotting; proximal rattle segment black; 10-12 (11.0) posterior body crossbands; the lacunal(s) wholly or partly separated, by 1-3 subfoveals, from the supralabial row; 3 scales (average) in minimum count between orbit and supralabials (Lowe & Norris 1954). 
CommentVenomous! GRISMER (1999) synonymized Crotalus enyo cerralvensis with Crotalus enyo.

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
  • Akeret, B. 2010. Sukkulenten und andere Pflanzen für das Trockenterrarium. Draco 11 (41): 44-53 - get paper here
  • Akeret, Beat 2015. Sukkulenten als Terrarienpflanzen. Draco 16 (62): 28-38
  • Beaman K R; Grismer L L 1994. Crotalus enyo (Cope), Baja California rattlesnake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 589: 1-6 - get paper here
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
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  • Cliff, Frank S. 1954. Snakes of the islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 12 (5): 67-98 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Contributions to the ophiology of Lower California, Mexico and Central America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 292-306 - get paper here
  • GARCÍA-PADILLA, ELI; JORGE H. VALDEZ VILLAVICENCIO, ANNY PERALTA GARCÍA 2018. Las Serpientes de Cascabel más allá del continente. Especies - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. L.; McGuire, J. A.; Hollingsworth, B. D. 1994. A report on the herpetofauna of the Vizcaino Peninsula, Baja California, Mexico, with a discussion of its biogeographic and taxonomic implications. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci. 93 (2): 45-80
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 1999. An evolutionary classification of reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California, México. Herpetologica 55 (4): 446-469 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian J. Herpetol. 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Lowe, Charles H., Jr & Norris, Kenneth S. 1954. Analysis of the herpetofauna of Baja California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 12 (4): 47-64 - get paper here
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  • Meik, Jesse M and André Pires-daSilva 2009. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:35 - get paper here
  • Murphy, R. W.; Ottley, J. R. 1984. Distribution of amphibians and reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 53 (8): 207-230 - get paper here
  • Olivier, R. 2008. Da Baja California ratelslang, Crotalus enyo en een kweekverslag van de Rosario ratelslang, Crotalus enyo furvus. Lacerta 66 (1-3): 30-39 - get paper here
  • Peralta-García A, Valdez-Villavicencio JH, Fucsko LA, Hollingsworth BD, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, Rocha A, DeSantis DL, Porras LW, and Wilson LD. 2023. The herpetofauna of the Baja California Peninsula and its adjacent islands, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 17(1&2): 57–142
  • Rieser, Jennifer M.; Tai-De Li, Jessica L. Tingle, Daniel I. Goldman, Joseph R. Mendelson 2021. Functional consequences of convergently evolved microscopic skin features on snake locomotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Feb 2021, 118 (6) e2018264118; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018264118 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A., Good, David A., Wake, David B. 2003. Brief History of Herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a List of Type Specimens of Recent Amphibians and Reptiles. UC Publications in Zoology, 119 pp. - get paper here
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  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
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  • Wüster, W. & Bérnils, R.S. 2011. On the generic classification of the rattlesnakes, with special reference to the Neotropical Crotalus durissus complex (Squamata: Viperidae). ZOOLOGIA 28 (4): 417–419 - get paper here
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