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Crotalus intermedius TROSCHEL, 1865

IUCN Red List - Crotalus intermedius - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesCrotalus intermedius intermedius TROSCHEL in MÜLLER 1865
Crotalus intermedius gloydi TAYLOR 1941
Crotalus intermedius omiltemanus GÜNTHER 1895 
Common NamesMexican Smallhead Rattlesnake 
SynonymCrotalus intermedius intermedius TROSCHEL in MÜLLER 1865
Crotalus intermedius TROSCHEL in MÜLLER 1865
Crotalus intermedius intermedius KLAUBER 1952: 9
Crotalus intermedius intermedius — LINER 1994
Crotalus intermedius — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 286
Aechmophrys (Cottonus) intermedius — HOSER 2009
Crotalus intermedius — WALLACH et al. 2014: 191

Crotalus intermedius gloydi TAYLOR 1941
Crotalus triseriatus gloydi TAYLOR 1941
Crotalus gloydi lautus SMITH 1946
Crotalus intermedius gloydi DAVIS & DIXON 1957
Crotalus intermedius gloydi — LINER 1994
Crotalus intermedius gloydi — BRYSON 2007

Crotalus intermedius omiltemanus GÜNTHER 1895
Crotalus omiltemanus GÜNTHER 1895
Crotalus intermedius omiltemanus KLAUBER 1952: 14
Crotalus triseriatus BOULENGER 1896
Crotalus intermedius omiltemanus — LINER 1994
Crotalus intermedius omiltemanus — BRYSON 2007 
DistributionMexico (disjunct populations in SE Hidalgo, Puebla, SW Tlaxcala, WC Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero)

intermedius: Michoacan, NE Puebla, WC Veracruz, C Oaxaca

gloydi: C Oaxaca, Michoacan; Type locality: Mexico: Cerro San Felip, Oaxaca; E. H. Taylor; 1940.

omiltemanus: C Guerrero  
TypesHolotype: lost, originally in Müller collection, later in Bonn (ZFMK); destroyed in World War II, according to R. Mertens (pers. comm.) in Klauber (1952: 10).
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 25070 (23645) [gloydi]
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.1.19.28-29 (both formerly BMNH [omiltemanus]
Holotype: USNM 110598 [Crotalus gloydi lautus] 

Crotalus intermedius FISCHER 1882 is a primary homonym of Crotalus intermedius TROSCHEL in MÜLLER 1865 (Holotypus: UMB 435 missing and may be lost).

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
  • Alvarado-Diaz, J. & Campbell, J.A. 2004. A new montane rattlesnake (Viperidae) from Michoacán, Mexico. Herpetologica 60 (2): 281-286 - get paper here
  • Arenas, Carlos Yañez; A. Townsend Peterson, Pierre Mokondoko, Octavio Rojas-Soto, Enrique Martínez-Meyer 2014. The Use of Ecological Niche Modeling to Infer Potential Risk Areas of Snakebite in the Mexican State of Veracruz. PLoS One 9 (6): e100957. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100957 - get paper here
  • Bryson Jr, Robert W.; Robert W. Murphy,Matthew R. Graham, Amy Lathrop and David Lazcano 2011. Ephemeral Pleistocene woodlands connect the dots for highland rattlesnakes of the Crotalus intermedius group. Journal of Biogeography 38: - get paper here
  • Bryson, R.W. 2007. Fotopirsch auf Gebirgsklapperschlangen. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 32-37 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Canseco-Márquez, L., & Gutiérrrez-Mayén, M.G. 2010. Anfibios y reptiles del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Comisión Nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, México D.F., Mexico, 302 pp - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Davis,W.B. & Dixon,J.R. 1957. Notes on Mexican Snakes (Ophidia). Southwestern Naturalist 2: 19-27 - get paper here
  • Fernández-Badillo, Leonardo, Cristian Raúl Olvera-Olvera and Ferdinand Torres-Angeles. 2016. Crotalus intermedius (Troschel, 1865). Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 526-527 - get paper here
  • Fernández-Badillo, Leonardo, Nallely Morales-Capellán, Irene Goyenechea and Uriel Hernández-Salinas. 2013. Geographic Distribution: Crotalus intermedius (Mexican small-headed rattlesnake). Herpetological Review 44 (3): 475-476 - get paper here
  • García-Padilla, Elí, Ciro A. Rodríguez-Pérez, Vicente Mata-Silva, Dominic L. DeSantis and Larry David Wilson. 2016. Crotalus intermedius Troschel, 1865. Arboreality. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 496-497 - get paper here
  • Gloyd, Howard K. 1940. The rattlesnakes, genera Sistrurus and Crotalus. The Chicago Academy of Sciences (Special Publication Number 4): 1-270 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hernández-Jandete, R., L. Fernández-Badillo, A. Ibarra-Bautista, and C. R. Olvera-Olvera. 2017. Crotalus intermedius (Troschel, 1865). Mexico, Hidalgo. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(3): 678 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian J. Herpetol. 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Ibarra-Bautista, A., R. Hernández-Jandete, R. D. Arellano-Pinacho and Fernández-Badillo. 2017. Crotalus intermedius Troschel, 1865. Mexico, Hidalgo. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(2): 485 - get paper here
  • Illescas-Aparicio, M., Clark-Tapia, R., González-Hernández, A., Vásquez-Díaz, Pedro R. & Aguirre-Hidalgo, V. 2016. Diversidad y riqueza herpetofaunística asociada al bosque de manejo forestal y áreas de cultivo, en Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 32(3): 359-369
  • Jadin RC, Mihaljevic JR, Orlofske SA. 2019. Do New World pitvipers “scale‐down” at high elevations? Macroecological patterns of scale characters and body size Ecol Evol. 00:1–14 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1952. Taxonomic studies on rattlesnakes of Mainland Mexico. Bulletins of the Zoological Society of San Diego (26): 1-143
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., Geoffrey R. Smith 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 11 (3): 1642 - get paper here
  • Martín-Regalado, N.; M. C. Lavariega, R. M. Gómez–Ugalde & C. Rodríguez–Pérez 2016. Anfibios y reptiles de la sierra de Cuatro Venados, Oaxaca, México. Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, 14 (2016): 217–232 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCranie J R 1991. Crotalus intermedius Troschel. Mexican small-headed rattlesnake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 519: 1-4 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Meik, Jesse M and André Pires-daSilva 2009. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:35 - get paper here
  • Müller, Johann Wilhelm 1865. Reisen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Canada und Mexiko. III. Beiträge zur Geschichte, Statistik und Zoologie von Mexiko. Dritte Abtheilung. Die Wirbeltiere Mexikos. III. Amphibia [Amphibia by Hugo Troschel, pp. 595-620]. Leipzig, Brockhaus. xiv + 643 pp. - get paper here
  • NIXON, R. & LANGNER, C. 2017. Erster Hinweis auf epizoisches Algenwachstum an Segmenten der Rassel der mexikanischen Zwergklapperschlange Crotalus intermedius gloydi Taylor, 1941 Sauria 39 (1): 47-50 - get paper here
  • PALACIOS-AGUILAR, RICARDO & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Perea-Pérez, Á; Peralta-Hernández, R; Corona-Garduño, O & García-Vázquez, U O; 2019. Geographic Distribution: Crotalus intermedius (Mexican Small-headed Rattlesnake). México: Veracruz: Municipality of Acajete Herpetological Review 50 (2): 330
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1941. Herpetology Miscellany, No. II. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 27 (7): 105-132 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884
  • Wüster, W. & Bérnils, R.S. 2011. On the generic classification of the rattlesnakes, with special reference to the Neotropical Crotalus durissus complex (Squamata: Viperidae). ZOOLOGIA 28 (4): 417–419
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