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Crotalus mitchellii (COPE, 1861)

IUCN Red List - Crotalus mitchellii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesCrotalus mitchellii angelensis KLAUBER 1963
Crotalus mitchellii mitchellii COPE 1861
Crotalus mitchellii muertensis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus (COPE 1866) 
Common NamesE: mitchelli: Speckled Rattlesnake
pyrrhus: Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake
stephensi: Panamint Rattlesnake
G: Gefleckte Klapperschlange 
SynonymCrotalus mitchellii mitchellii COPE 1861
Caudisona mitchellii COPE 1861: 293
Crotalus mitchellii — COPE 1875
Crotalus mitchelli — BOULENGER 1896
Crotalus goldmani SCHMIDT 1922
Crotalus mitchellii mitchellii — STEBBINS 1985: 229
Crotalus mitchellii mitchellii — LINER 1994
Crotalus mitchelli — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 288
Crotalus mitchellii mitchellii — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Matteoea mitchelli — HOSER 2009
Crotalus mitchellii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 192

Crotalus mitchellii angelensis KLAUBER 1963
Crotalus mitchellii angelensis KLAUBER 1963
Crotalus mitchellii angelensis — LINER 1994
Crotalus angelensis — GRISMER 1999
Crotalus mitchellii angelensis — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Matteoea angelensis — HOSER 2009

Crotalus mitchellii muertensis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus mitchellii muertensis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus mitchellii mitchellii — STEJNEGER 1895
Crotalus mitchellii muertensis — LINER 1994
Crotalus muertensis — GRISMER 1999
Crotalus mitchellii muertensis — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008

Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus (COPE 1866)
Caudisona pyrrha COPE 1866
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — STEJNEGER 1895
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — STEBBINS 1985: 229
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — LINER 1994
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — MATTISON 2007: 132
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus — LAITA 2013 
DistributionUSA (from central California, SW Nevada, SW Utah to most of the Baja peninsula),
Mexico (Baja California, NW Sonora)

mitchelli: S Baja California, Mexico, islands off the coast. Type locality: "Cape St. Lucas, Lower California" [Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

angelensis: Isla Angel de la Guardia (Mexico); Type locality: "about 4 miles southeast of Refugio Bay, at 1500 feet elevation, Isla Angel de la Guarda, Gulf of California, Mexico(near 29°29 1/2' N, 113°33' W)."

muertensis: El Muerto Island (Gulf of California); Type locality: "EI Muerto Island, Gulf of California, Mexico."

pyrrhus: S California, S Nevada, W Arizona, NW Sonora, N Baja California; Type locality: Not given in original description; given as "Canon Prieto, a locality near Fort Whipple [Yavapai County], Arizona" by Coues In Wheeler 1875: 608, and as "Canyon Prieto, Yavapai County, Arizona" [USA], by Klauber, 1956, Rattlesnakes, 1st ed., 1:708 pp.[38]. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: USNM 5291 1/2, now lost (mitchelli)
Holotype: SDSNH 51994; paratypes SDSNH [angelensis]
Holotype : SDSNH 37447; paratypes SDSNH [muertensis]
Holotype: USNM 6606 [pyrrhus] 
CommentVenomous! Grismer (1999) elevated angelensis and muertensis to full species status based on aspects of coloration, squamation, and size using an evolutionary species concept. However, he provides details only on some body measurements which are of little use without a larger number or specimen.

Reproduction: viviparous.

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
References
  • Amaral, A. D. 1927. Studies of nearctic ophidia I. Crotalus goldmani Schmidt, 1922, a synonym of C. mitchelli Cope, 1861. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 1 (2): 47-48
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Contributions to the ophiology of Lower California, Mexico and Central America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 292-306 - get paper here
  • Coues, Elliott 1875. Synopsis of the Reptiles and Batrachians of Arizona; with critical and field notes, and an extensive synonymy. Report upon Geographical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian. Volume V. Zoology: Reports upon the Zoological Collections Obtained from Portions of Nevada, Utah, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, dur
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Cunningham, John D. 1966. Field Observations on the Thermal Relations of Rattlesnakes. Southwestern Naturalist 11 (1): 140-142 - get paper here
  • Douglas, Michael E.; Marlis R. Douglas, Gordon W. Schuett & Louis W. Porras 2006. Evolution of Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus) in the Warm Deserts of Western North America Shaped by Neogene Vicariance and Quaternary Climate Change. Molecular Ecology 15: 3353-3374
  • Douglas, Michael E.; Marlis R. Douglas, Gordon W. Schuett, Louis W. Porras & Blake L. Thomason 2007. GENEALOGICAL CONCORDANCE BETWEEN MITOCHONDRIAL AND NUCLEAR DNAS SUPPORTS SPECIES RECOGNITION OF THE PANAMINT RATTLESNAKE (CROTALUS MITCHELLII STEPHENSI). Copeia 2007 (4): 920–932 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 1999. An evolutionary classification of reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California, México. Herpetologica 55 (4): 446-469 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Klauber, L. M. 1936. Crotalus mitchellii, the speckled rattlesnake. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 8 (19): 149-184 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1949. Some new and revived subspecies of rattlesnakes. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 11 (6): 61-116 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1963. A new insular subspecies of the speckled rattlesnake. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 13: 73-80 - get paper here
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McCrystal H K; McCoid M J 1986. Crotalus mitchellii (Cope). Speckled rattlesnake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 388: 1-4 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Meik, Jesse M and André Pires-daSilva 2009. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:35 - get paper here
  • Meik, Jesse M.; Lawing, A.M. and André Pires-da Silva 2010. Body Size Evolution in Insular Speckled Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii). PloS ONE 5: e9524 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1944. Additions to the list of Mexican amphibians and reptiles in the Carnegie Museum. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 30: 87-92
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werning, H. 2011. Tage im Frühjahr auf der Suche ach dem Baja-California-Halsbandleguan im Süden Kaliforniens. Iguana Rundschreiben 24 (1): 12-16
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2007. Klapperschlangen! Die Gattung Crotalus. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 18-25 - get paper here
  • Wong, Humberto 1997. Comments on the snake records of Chilomeniscus cinctus, Crotalus exsul, and C. Mitchelli from Islas Magdalena and Santa Margarita, Baja California, México. Herpetological Review 28 (4): 188-189 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W. & Bérnils, R.S. 2011. On the generic classification of the rattlesnakes, with special reference to the Neotropical Crotalus durissus complex (Squamata: Viperidae). ZOOLOGIA 28 (4): 417–419
 
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