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Crotalus oreganus HOLBROOK, 1840

IUCN Red List - Crotalus oreganus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesCrotalus oreganus abyssus KLAUBER 1930
Crotalus oreganus caliginis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus oreganus concolor WOODBURY 1929
Crotalus oreganus helleri MEEK 1905
Crotalus oreganus lutosus KLAUBER 1930
Crotalus oreganus oreganus HOLBROOK 1840 
Common NamesE: abyssus: Grand Canyon Rattlesnake
E: cerberus: Arizona Black Rattlesnake
E: concolor: Midget Faded Rattlesnake
E: helleri: Southern Pacific Rattlesnake
E: lutosus: Great Basin Rattlesnake
E: oreganus: Northern Pacific Rattlesnake
G: Oregon-Klapperschlange
G: nuntius: Hopi-Klapperschlange
G: lutosus: Great-Basin-Klapperschlange 
SynonymCrotalus viridis oreganus HOLBROOK 1840
Crotalus oreganus HOLBROOK 1840
Crotalus oregonus [sic] — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 145
Crotalus confluentus oreganus — FITCH 1936
Crotalus viridis oreganus KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus viridis oreganus — EINFALT 1998
Crotalus oreganus oreganus — ASHTON et al. 2001
Crotalus oreganus oreganus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus oreganus — HOSER 2009
Crotalus oreganus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Crotalus oreganus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 193
Crotalus oreganus — DAVIS et al. 2016

Crotalus oreganus abyssus KLAUBER 1930
Crotalus viridis abyssus KLAUBER 1930
Crotalus confluentus abyssus KLAUBER 1930
Crotalus viridis abyssus — KLAUBER 1936
Crotalus viridis abyssus — STEBBINS 1985: 231
Crotalus viridis abyssus — CROTHER 2000: 60
Crotalus oreganus abyssus — ASHTON et al. 2001
Crotalus oreganus abyssus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus oreganus abyssus — OLIVIER 2008
Crotalus abyssus — HOSER 2009
Crotalus oreganus abyssus— BOUNDY et al. 2012
Crotalus abyssus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 188

Crotalus oreganus caliginis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus viridis caliginis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus viridis caliginis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus viridis caliginis — KISSER 1980
Crotalus viridis caliginis — LINER 1994
Crotalus oreganus caliginis — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus oreganus caliginis — GROEN 2008
Crotalus oreganus caliginus — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Crotalus caliginis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 189

Crotalus oreganus concolor WOODBURY 1929
Crotalus concolor WOODBURY 1929
Crotalus viridis concolor — KLAUBER 1936
Crotalus viridis decolor GLOYD 1940
Crotalus viridis concolor — KISSER 1980
Crotalus viridis concolor — CROTHER 2000: 60
Crotalus oreganus concolor — ASHTON et al. 2001
Crotalus concolor — DOUGLAS et al. 2002
Crotalus concolor — HOUSTON 2006
Crotalus oreganus concolor — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus oreganus concolor — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Crotalus concolor — HOSER 2009
Crotalus viridis concolor — WERNING 2012
Crotalus oreganus concolor — CROTHER et al. 2012
Crotalus concolor — WALLACH et al. 2014: 189
Crotalus concolor — DAVIS et al. 2016

Crotalus oreganus helleri MEEK 1905
Crotalus helleri MEEK 1905
Crotalus viridis helleri — KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus viridis helleri — STEBBINS 1985: 232
Crotalus viridis helleri — LINER 1994
Crotalus oreganus helleri — ASHTON et al. 2001
Crotalus oreganus helleri — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus oreganus helleri — OLIVIER 2008
Crotalus oreganus helleri — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Crotalus helleri — HOSER 2009
Crotalus oreganus helleri — CROTHER et al. 2012
Crotalus helleri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 191
Crotalus helleri — DAVIS et al. 2016

Crotalus oreganus lutosus KLAUBER 1930
Crotalus confluentus lutosus KLAUBER 1930
Crotalus viridis lutosus — KLAUBER 1936
Crotalus viridis lutosus — HIRTH 1966
Crotalus viridis lutosus — STEBBINS 1985: 232
Crotalus viridis lutosus — CROTHER 2000: 60
Crotalus oreganus lutosus — ASHTON et al. 2001
Crotalus oreganus lutosus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Crotalus oreganus lutosus — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Crotalus lutosus — HOSER 2009
Crotalus oreganus lutosus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Crotalus lutosus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 192
Crotalus lutosus — DAVIS et al. 2016 
DistributionSW Canada, W USA (Washington, California, Oregon ?, Montana), Mexico (Baja California)

abyssus: USA (Arizona); Type-locality: "Tanner Trail 300 ft. below the south rim of the Grand Canyon, Coconino County, Arizona

caliginis: USA (South Coronado Island, off the coast of Baja California)

concolor: USA (basins of the Colorado and Green Rivers)

helleri: SW California, Mexico (Baja California)

lutosus: USA (Great Basin between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada.)

oreganus: E USA, SW Canada (Pacific slopes est of the Cascades and west of the Sierra Nevada, from British Columbia to NE California; Type locality: Oregon Territory. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: ANSP 7158;
abyssus: Holotype SDSNH 2216.
lutosus: Holotype SDSNH 1814; paratypes SDSNH 1800-1813, 1815, 1816.
caliginis: Holotype SDSNH 2800; paratypes SDSNH 

Size: Length up to 58 inches (~ 145 cm).

ASHTON et al. (2001) split C. viridis into two evolutionary species, C. viridis and C. oreganus. CROTHER (2003) and others also followed that scheme. Pook et al. (2002) found that cerberus is genetically isolated from other viridis and thus can be considered as a separate species or as divergent subspecies or viridis.

Subspecies: The current subspecies are realated. Davis et al. (2016: 13) noted that “caliginis is recognized as a diminutive insular form of helleri, while abyssus is a stunted lutosus, and nuntius a dwarfed viridis”. While they treat helleri, concolor, and lutosus as valid (evolutionary) species, they also state that “calignis is not sufficiently divergent at the molecular level and should instead be designated as an insular population of C. helleri” and fail to differentiate abyssus, and thus “recommend it should instead be subsumed within C. lutosus”.

hence we maintain them as subspecies for the time being.

SIZE: concolor: up to 63 cm

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
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