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Crotalus scutulatus (KENNICOTT, 1861)

IUCN Red List - Crotalus scutulatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesCrotalus scutulatus salvini GÜNTHER 1895
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (KENNICOTT 1861) 
Common NamesE: scutulatus: Mojave (Green) Rattlesnake; salvini: Huamantlan Rattlesnake
G: Mojave-Klapperschlange
S: Chiauhcoatl 
SynonymCrotalus scutulatus scutulatus (KENNICOTT 1861)
Caudisona scutulata KENNICOTT 1861: 207
Crotalus scutulatus — COPE 1875
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus — GLOYD 1940
Crotalus scutulatus — COPE 1883
Crotalus confluentus kellyi AMARAL 1929: 90 (fide KLAUBER 1930)
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus — STEBBINS 1985: 233
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus — TANNER 1985: 664
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 236
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus — LINER 1994
Crotalus scutulatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 293
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 532
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus — DIXON 2000
Crotalus scutulatus — ERNST & ERNST 2003: 528
Crotalus scutulatus — HOSER 2009
Crotalus scutulatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 194

Crotalus scutulatus salvini GÜNTHER 1895
Crotalus salvini GÜNTHER 1895: 193
Crotalus scutulatus salvini — GLOYD 1940
Crotalus scutulatus salvini — KLAUBER 1952: 98
Crotalus scutulatus salvini — LINER 1994
Crotalus scutulatus salvini — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008 
DistributionUSA (S California, S Nevada, Arizona, S New Mexico, W Texas, SW Utah),
Mexico (N/E Sonora, Chihuahua, W/S Coahuila, Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, S Nuevo Leon, W Tamaulipas, south to S Puebla, Aguascalientes, Quéretaro, Jalisco, Guanajuato)

Type locality: Fort Buchanan, near present-day Sonoita, in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.

kellyi (invalid): USA (California); Type locality: Needles, CA.

salvini: Mexico (Tlaxcala, Puebla, Hidalgo, WC Veracruz)

scutulatus: USA (W Texas); Mexico (Chihuahua)  
Reproductionovovivparous. Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus and Crotalus cerastes laterorepens hybridized in captivity. 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 7069 (formerly one of two specimens of USNM 5027)
kellyi: Holotype SDNHM = SDSNH 194; paratype SDNHM = SDSNH 195.
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.1.19.35 (BMNH formerly 1873.1.13.1) [salvini] 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS. A species of Crotalus distinguished from its congeners by the following characteristics: minimum scale rows between supraoculars usually 2, rarely 3; usually 2 large plates between the anterior portion of the supraoculars followed by 3 smaller ones; presence of a definite suture on top of the head dividing the scales in front of the supraoculars from those between them, with a reduction of the number of scales in front of the suture; postnasals not in contact with upper preoculars and contact not prevented by upper loreal, which is absent; postocular pale stripe usually only 1 scale wide, passing backward above the angle of the mouth; dorsal body blotches bordered by a complete row of pale, unicolored scales; tail conspicuously ringed by dark and white bands, the dark tail bands considerably narrower than the white ones; color of the dark tail bands changing from brown proximally to black distally. (Price 1982) 

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011.

Population genetics: Schield et al. 2018 recovered 4 different clades within the species, one of which was C. s. salvini. This was confirmed by Watson et al. 2019, found continuous clinal variation across these populations, and hence questioned the validity of salvini, although it does correspond to a distinct population. Watcon et al. 2019 found that it is possible that C. s. salvini, which is morphologically the most distinctive population, could represent a peripheral isolate in the initial stages of speciation.

Hybridization: Cook (1955) described hybrids between C. scutulatus and C. viridis.

karyotype: Zimmerman and Kilpatrick 1973.

Similar species: C. atrox. 
EtymologyThe Latin scutula, "a small plate," and -atus, "provided with," refer to the perceived smaller scales than in other populations. 
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