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Crotalus tigris KENNICOTT, 1859

IUCN Red List - Crotalus tigris - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Tiger Rattlesnake
G: Tiger-Klapperschlange 
SynonymCrotalus tigris KENNICOTT 1859: 14
Crotalus tigris — STEBBINS 1985: 230
Crotalus tigris — LINER 1994
Crotalus tigris — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 295
Crotalus tigris — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008
Matteoea tigris — HOSER 2009 
DistributionUSA, Mexico (SC Arizona),
Mexico (Sonora)

Type locality: "Sierra Verde and Pozo Verde." Pozo Verde is a spring located on the Sonoran side of the USA-Mexico border, near Sasabe. It is on the western slope of the southern end of the Sierra Verde, which is also known as the Sierra del Pozo Verde, according to Stejneger 1893: 214 and indicated on recent maps of Sonora, Mexico. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: USNM 471. The original series consisted of three specimens (USNM 471-473) all with the same data. It is not clear which specimen(s) Kennicott examined when he wrote the description. Only a single specimen "No. 471. Sierra Verde and Pozo Verde" was listed by Baird (1859:14) and this specimen has been called the type by Gloyd, 1940, Chicago Acad. Sci., Spec. Publ. (4):266 pp. [223] and Klauber, 1956, Rattlesnakes, 1st ed., 1:708 pp.[43], and holotype by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. (220):292 pp. [171]. USNM 471 and USNM 472 were called "the types" by Cope, 1900 [dated 1898], Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 [1182], with no mention of USNM 473. It seems likely that USNM 473 had been exchanged to The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia before Cope's manuscript was completed. Klauber (1930, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 6:95-144 [106]) referred to USNM 471 and USNM 472 as co-types and later (Klauber, 1956, Rattlesnakes, 1st ed., 1:708 pp. [43]), stated USNM 472 and USNM 473 [now ANSP 7160] may be considered "cotypes." In contrast, Gloyd (1940:223 and footnote) referred to USNM 472 and USNM 473 as paratypes. McDiarmid et al. 1999 consider USNM 471 as the holotype. If data become available that suggest that Kennicott actually examined two or three specimens, then we would recommend that the three specimens be considered syntypes and Gloyd's (1940:223) action (possibly an earlier one exists) designating USNM 471 as the lectotype be followed. 
CommentVenomous!

Reproduction: viviparous.

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
References
  • Amaral,A. do 1929. Studies of nearctic ophidia III. Notes on Crotalus tigris KENNICOTT, 1839. Bull. Antivenin Inst. Amer. 2 (4): 82-85
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Douglas, Michael E.; Marlis R. Douglas, Gordon W. Schuett & Louis W. Porras 2006. Evolution of Rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus) in the Warm Deserts of Western North America Shaped by Neogene Vicariance and Quaternary Climate Change. Molecular Ecology 15: 3353-3374
  • FLESCH, AARON D.; DON E. SWANN, DALE S. TURNER, AND BRIAN F. POWELL 2010. HERPETOFAUNA OF THE RINCON MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA. Southwestern Naturalist 55(2):240–253 - get paper here
  • Holycross, Andrew T. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Crotalus tigris Herpetological Review 29 (2): 111 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Kennicott 1859. In Baird, U.S: Mexican Bound. Surv. 2, Rept., Pt. 2, p. 14, 16,18, pl.13
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1931. Crotalus tigris and Crotalus enyo, two little known rattlesnakes of the southwest Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 6 (24): 353-370 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Meik, Jesse M and André Pires-daSilva 2009. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:35 - get paper here
  • Monzel, Markus M 2012. Gifte, Gifttiere, Menschen – eine Geschichte voller (Miss)Verständnisse Draco 13 (51): 4-25 - get paper here
  • Painter, Charles W.;Milensky, Christopher M. 1993. Crotalus tigris (tiger rattlesnake). USA: Arizona Herpetological Review 24 (4): 155-156 - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Skubowius, Bernd 2012. Auf Schlangensuche in Arizona Draco 13 (50): 62-69 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger,L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1938. Notes on the herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sonora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (19): 475-503 [1936] - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2007. Klapperschlangen! Die Gattung Crotalus. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 18-25 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W. & Bérnils, R.S. 2011. On the generic classification of the rattlesnakes, with special reference to the Neotropical Crotalus durissus complex (Squamata: Viperidae). ZOOLOGIA 28 (4): 417–419
 
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