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Crotalus willardi MEEK, 1905

IUCN Red List - Crotalus willardi - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesCrotalus willardi amabilis ANDERSON 1962
Crotalus willardi meridionalis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus willardi obscurus HARRIS 1974
Crotalus willardi silus KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus willardi willardi MEEK 1905 
Common NamesE: willardi: Arizona Ridgenose Rattlesnake; obscurus: New Mexico Ridgenose Rattlesnake; amabilis: Del Nido Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake; meridionalis: Southern Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake; silus: Western Chihuahuan Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake)
G: Willard-Klapperschlange 
SynonymCrotalus willardi willardi MEEK 1905
Crotalus willardi MEEK 1905
Crotalus willardi willardi — KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus willardi willardi — STEBBINS 1985: 234
Crotalus willardi willardi — LINER 1994
Crotalus willardi — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 300
Aechmophrys (Cottonus) willardi — HOSER 2009
Crotalus willardi — CROTHER et al. 2012
Crotalus willardi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 196

Crotalus willardi amabilis ANDERSON 1962
Crotalus willardi amabilis ANDERSON 1962
Crotalus willardi amabilis — LINER 1994
Crotalus willardi amabilis — BRYSON 2007

Crotalus willardi meridionalis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus willardi meridionalis KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus willardi meridionalis — LINER 1994
Crotalus willardi meridionalis — BEAMAN & HAYES 2008

Crotalus willardi obscurus HARRIS 1974
Crotalus willardi obscurus HARRIS 1974
Crotalus willardi obscurus — STEBBINS 1985: 234
Crotalus willardi obscurus — LINER 1994
Crotalus willardi obscurus — BRYSON 2007

Crotalus willardi silus KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus willardi silus KLAUBER 1949
Crotalus willardi silus — LINER 1994
Crotalus willardi silus — BRYSON 2007 
DistributionUSA (SE Arizona: Santa Rita Mountains, Patagonia Mountains, Canelo Hills-Huachuca Mountains, Whetstone Mountains; SW New Mexico),
Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango: Sierra Madre Occidental and associated highlands)

willardi: USA (S Arizona), Mexico (N Sonora); Type locality: Tombstone, Arizona; emended to "the Huachucas [Mountains], ... a short distance above Hamburg in the middle branch of Ramsey Canyon, ... at about 7000 feet" elevation by SWARTH 1921.

amabilis: Mexico (Sierra del Nido, Chihuahua); Type locality: "Arroyo Mestefio, 8,500 feet, Sierra del Nido, Chihuahua, Mexico."

meridionalis: Mexico (S Durango, NW Zacatecas); Type locality: "Coyotes, Durango, Mexico, at elevation 8000 ft." (on the railroad to EI Salto, according to Klauber 1949: 131).

obscurus: Mexico (NE Sonora, NW Chihuahua), USA (S Arizona: Peloncillo Mountains; Bryan Starrett, pers. comm.). Type locality: "one canyon in the Animas Mountains," [New Mexico, USA] in original description; subsequently given as "upper end Indian Creek Canyon, Animas Mountains, Hidalgo County, New Mexico" by Harris and Simmons (1976:5).

silus: Mexico (NE Sonora, W Chihuahua), USA (SW New Mexico); Type locality: "on the Rio Gavilan, 7 miles southwest of Pacheco Chihuahua, Mexico, elevation 6200 ft." Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: FMNH 902
Holotype: designated as USNM 195546 by Harris and Simmons, 1976 [obscurus]
Holotype: MVZ 68896 [amabilis]
Holotype: SDSNH 6569 [meridionalis]
Holotype: ,Holotype: MVZ 46694 [silus] 
CommentVenomous!

Nomenclature: Hoser’s 2009 classification and nomenclature has been rejected as unnecessary and unavailable by WÜSTER & BERNILS 2011. 
Etymologynamed for Professor F. C. Willard, of Tombstone, Arizona, its discoverer. 
References
  • Anderson, J. D. 1962. A new subspecies of the ridge-nosed rattlesnake, Crotalus willardi, from Chihuahua, Mexico. Copeia 1962 (1): 160-163 - get paper here
  • Barker, David G. 1992. Variation, Infraspecific Relationships and Biogeography of the Ridgenose Rattlesnake, Crotalus willardi. In Biology of the Pit vipers, edited by Jonathan A. Campbell and Edmund D. Brodie. Selva, Tyler, Texas, pp. 89-105
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
  • Bryson, R.W. 2007. Fotopirsch auf Gebirgsklapperschlangen. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 32-37 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr. 1979. A bibliography of endangered and threatened amphibians and reptiles in the United States and its territories (conservation, distribution, natural history, status). Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (46): 1-35 - get paper here
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Harris, H. Jr., R. S. Simmons 1976. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 12 (1): 5
  • Hartman, Frank A. 1911. Description of a little-known rattlesnake, Crotalus willardi, from Arizona. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 39: 569-570 - get paper here
  • Holycross, Andrew T.;Smith, Sam W. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Crotalus willardi obscurus. Herpetological Review 28 (2): 97 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Ishimatsu, Marisa and Timothy Warfel. 2014. Crotalus willardi amabilis (Del Nido ridge-nosed rattlesnake) maximum elevation. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 144
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1949. The subspecies of the ridge-nosed rattlesnake, Crotalus willardi. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 11 (8): 121-140 - get paper here
  • McCranie, J.R. & Wilson, L.D. 1979. Commentary on taxonomic practice in regional herpetological publications: a review of the rattlesnakes with the description of four new subspecies [by HARRIS & SIMMONS 1978]. Herpetological Review 10 (1): 18-21 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Meek,S.E. 1905. An annotated list of a collection of reptiles from southern California and northern lower California. Field Columbian Mus. Publ. Zool. 7 (1): 1-19 - get paper here
  • Meik, Jesse M and André Pires-daSilva 2009. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9:35 - get paper here
  • Rado, T.A. & Rowlands, P.G. 1981. A range extension and low elevational record for the Arizona Ridgenose Rattlesnake (Crotalus w. willardi). Herpetological Review 12 (1): 15 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A., Good, David A., Wake, David B. 2003. Brief History of Herpetology in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, with a List of Type Specimens of Recent Amphibians and Reptiles. UC Publications in Zoology, 119 pp.
  • Setser, Kirk; Estrella Mociño-Deloya, and Jesse M. Meik 2011. Rattle Button Loss in Juvenile Ridge-nosed Rattlesnakes (Crotalus willardi): A Novel Mechanism for the Developmental Delay of the Rattle. Journal of Herpetology 45 (3): 333-335. - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • THIRKHILL, L. S., AND B. L. STARRETT 1992. Geographic distribution: Crotalus willardi willardi. Herpetological Review 23:124 - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Tr 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2007. Klapperschlangen! Die Gattung Crotalus. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (66): 18-25 - get paper here
  • Wüster, W. & Bérnils, R.S. 2011. On the generic classification of the rattlesnakes, with special reference to the Neotropical Crotalus durissus complex (Squamata: Viperidae). ZOOLOGIA 28 (4): 417–419
 
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