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Crotaphytus collaris (SAY, 1823)

IUCN Red List - Crotaphytus collaris - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaCrotaphytidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesCrotaphytus collaris auriceps FITCH & TANNER 1951
Crotaphytus collaris collaris (SAY 1823)
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi STEJNEGER 1890
Crotaphytus collaris fuscus INGRAM & TANNER 1971
Crotaphytus collaris melanomaculatus AXTELL & WEBB 1995 
Common NamesE: Collared Lizard
G: Halsband Leguan (auriceps: Goldkopf-Halsbandleguan) 
SynonymAgama collaris SAY 1823: 252
Crotaphytus collaris — HOLBROOK 1842
Leiosaurus collaris — DUMÉRIL 1856: 532
Crotaphytus collaris — BOULENGER 1885: 203
Crotaphytus dickersonae SCHMIDT 1922 (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)
Crotaphytus dickersonae — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 93
Crotaphytus collaris — STEBBINS 1985: 120
Crotaphytus collaris — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 96
Crotaphytus collaris — LINER 1994
Crotaphytus collaris — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009

Crotaphytus collaris auriceps FITCH & TANNER 1951
Crotaphytus collaris dickersonae (MONTANUCCI, AXTELL & DESSAUER 1975)
Crotaphytus collaris auriceps — STEBBINS 1985: 120
Crotaphytus dickersonae — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 162
Crotaphytus collaris auriceps — MERKER et al. 2004

Crotaphytus collaris baileyi STEJNEGER 1890
Crotaphytus baileyi STEJNEGER 1890: 103 (fide COPE 1898: 250)
Crotaphytus baileyi STEJNEGER 1893: 165
Crotaphytes collaris baileyi — STONE & REHN 1903: 30
Crotaphytes collaris baileyi — ORTENBURGER & ORTENBURGER 1927
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — TAYLOR 1938: 480
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — MONTANUCCI et al. 1975

Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — LAZCANO-VILLAREAL & DIXON 2002
Crotaphytus collaris baileyi — LINER et al. 1993
Crotaphytus collaris fuscus INGRAM & TANNER 1971
Crotaphytus collaris fuscus — MERKER et al. 2004 
DistributionUSA (Arizona, Nevada, SE Utah, S Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas),
Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, N Durango, Coahuila, N Zacatecas, Nuevo Leon; W Louisiana)

auriceps: E Utah, NW Colorado; Type locality: "3 1/2 mi. NNE Dewey, west side of the Colorado River, Grand County, Utah".

baileyi: USA (New Mexico, Utah, Texas), Mexico (Coahuila); Type locality: "Painted Desert, Little Colorado River, Arizona"

collaris: Texas

fuscus: USA (New Mexico, W Texas); Mexico (Chihuahua); Type locality: "6.5 mi. N and 1.5 mi. W of Chihuahua City, Chihuahua, Mexico".

melanomaculatus: Mexico (NE Durango, Coahuila, N Zacatecas, S Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, SW Tamaulipas). Type locality: 3.8 km S, 1.7 km E Graseros on the highway to Presa Francisco Zarca, el 1250 m, Durango, Mexico (25 14′ 10″N, 103 47′W) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: ANSP (now lost)
Holotype: Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. KU 29934 [auriceps]
Holotype: USNM 15821 [baileyi]
Holotype: Brig. Young Univ. No. 16970 [fuscus]
Holotype: UTEP 15915 [melanomaculatus]
Holotype: Los Angeles Co. Mus. No. 126617 [nebrius] 
CommentSubspecies: COLLINS & TAGGART 2009 do not distinguish any subspecies in North America. However, they (and other authors) consider all or some former subspecies either as synonyms of collaris or as full species. The AMNH checklist does not recognize any subspecies either (see link).

Synonymy: Montanucci et al. (1975) synonymized C. c. auriceps with C. c. baileyi. However, a number of authors continue to recognize auriceps. Cope 1900 synonymized baileyi with collaris as did other subsequent authors. Crotaphytus collaris baileyi hybridizes with C. (insularis) bicinctores but hybrids appear to have lower fitness (Montanucci 1983).

Type species: Agama collaris SAY 1823 is the type species of the genus Crotaphytus HOLBROOK 1842. 
EtymologyThe generic name is derived from the Greek words krotaphos, meaning “side of head” and phyton, meaning "creature," applied in reference to then enlarged muscles on the posterior of the head. The species is named after the Latin word collaris meaning collar (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013). 
References
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