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Crotaphytus insularis VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN, 1921

IUCN Red List - Crotaphytus insularis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaCrotaphytidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Eastern Collared Lizard
S: Cachorón de Collar Negro 
SynonymCrotaphytus insularis VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921
Crotaphytus collaris insularis — SOULÉ & SLOAN 1966
Crotaphytus insularis insularis — SMITH & TANNER 1972
Crotaphytus insularis insularis — SMITH & TANNER 1974
Crotaphytus insularis — STEBBINS 1985: 121
Crotaphytus insularis — LINER 1994
Crotaphytus insularis — HEIMES 2022 
DistributionMexico (Baja California: Angel de la Guarda Island)

Type locality: Angel de la Guarda Island, 7 miles north of Pond Island, Gulf of California, Baja California  
TypesHolotype: CAS 49151 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Crotaphytus insularis can be distinguished from all other Crotaphytus by the slender and elongate nasal process of the premaxilla and its dorsal pattern of elongate white dashes, some of which may form thick, wavy transverse lines. It can be distinguished from all Croraphytus except female C. rericulatus and occasional C. vestigium by the extreme reduction of the posterior collar in both sexes such that it is nearly always absent, and when present, it is extremely reduced. It can be distinguished from all but C. vestigium by the presence of extravomerine bones. It can be distinguished from allbutsomeC.vestigium(thosefromnorthofBahia de Los Angeles, Baja California) and some C. collaris by the presence in adult males of olive green ventrolateral coloration. It can be distinguished from C.reticulatus, C. collaris, C. ncbrius, and C. dickersonae by the absence of black oral melanin. It can be further distinguished from C.reticulatus, C. collaris, and C. nebritcs by the presence in adult males of a strongly laterally compressed tail, a white or off-white dorsal caudal stripe, a pale tan or white patternless region on the dorsal surface of the head, and enlarged dark brown or black inguinal patches (rather than the small inguinal patches of C. nebrius and some C.collaris).It can be further distinguished from C.collaris by the presence in adult males of dark brown or black pigmentation in the gular fold (= ventrally complete anterior collar). It can be further distinguished from C. grismeri by its forelimb and hindlimb patterns consisting of white reticulations on a brown field and the absence of a greenish tint in the white bar that separates the anterior and posterior collars. It can be further distinguished from
C. reticulatus and from C. antiquus by the absence of the white dorsal reticulum characteristic of these species (McGuire 1996: 87). 
CommentMontanucci (1983) downgraded Crotaphytus bicinctores to C. insularis bicinctores but others revalidated it. Crotaphytus insularis is part of a natural group containing C. bicinctores, C. grismeri, and C. vestigium and is the sister species of C. vestigium (McGuire 1996). 
Etymologyrom the Latin insula, island, and aris, pertaining to. In reference to the insular distribution of this species. 
  • Collins, J.T. and T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Heimes, P. 2022. LIZARDS OF MEXICO - Part 1 Iguanian lizards. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt Am Main, 448 pp.
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Lipfert, J. 2004. Halsbandleguane (die Gattung Crotaphytus). Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 64 pp. - get paper here
  • McGuire, J. A. 1996. Phylogenetic systematics of crotaphytid lizards (Reptilia: Iguania: Crotaphytidae). Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 32: 1-142 - get paper here
  • Montanucci, R. R. 1983. Natural Hybridization between Two Species of Collared Lizards (Crotaphytus). Copeia 1983 (1): 1-11 - get paper here
  • Montanucci, R. R.;Axtell, R. W.;Dessauer, H. C. 1975. Evolutionary divergence among collared lizards (Crotaphytus), with comments on the status of Gambelia. Herpetologica 31 (3): 336-347 - get paper here
  • Mosauer, Walter 1936. The reptilian fauna of sand dune areas of Vizcaino Desert and of northwestern Lower California. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (329): 1-21 - get paper here
  • Peralta-García A, Valdez-Villavicencio JH, Fucsko LA, Hollingsworth BD, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, Rocha A, DeSantis DL, Porras LW, and Wilson LD. 2023. The herpetofauna of the Baja California Peninsula and its adjacent islands, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 17(1&2): 57–142
  • Pianka, E.R. & Vitt, L.J. 2003. Lizards - Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. University of California Press, Berkeley, 347 pp. [review in Copeia 2004: 955] - get paper here
  • Smith, N.M. & W.W. Tanner. 1974. A taxonomic study of the western collared lizards, Crotaphytus collaris and Crotaphytus insularis. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 19: iv, 1-29. - get paper here
  • Smith, N.M. and Tanner,W.W. 1972. Two new subspecies of Crotaphytus (Sauria: Iguanidae). Great Basin Naturalist. 32: 25-34 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Van Denburgh,J. and Slevin,J.R. 1921. A list of the amphibians and reptiles of Nevada, with notes on the species in the collection of the academy. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 11 (2): 27-38 - get paper here
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