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Crotaphytus vestigium SMITH & TANNER, 1972

IUCN Red List - Crotaphytus vestigium - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaCrotaphytidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Baja Black-collared Lizard
S: Cachorón de Baja California 
SynonymCrotaphytus fasciatus MOCQUARD 1899: 303 (invalid)
Crotaphytus fasciolatus MOCQUARD 1903 (nom. subst.)
Crotaphytus insularis vestigium SMITH & TANNER 1972: 29
Crotaphytus insularis vestigium — STEBBINS 1985: 122
Crotaphytus vestigium — LINER 1994
Crotaphytus vestigium — LINER 2007
Crotaphytus vestigium — IVANYI in JONE S& LOVICH 2009: 112 
DistributionUSA (California), Mexico (Baja California)

Type locality: "Guadelupe Canyon, Juarez Mountains, Baja
TypesHolotype: BYU 23338 (Brigham Young University) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Crotaphyfus sestigium can be distinguished from all other Crotaphytusexcept C. insularis and C. rericulatus by the presence of widely separated posterior collars. It can be distinguished from all other speciesof Crotaphytusby the presence of slender, white transverse dorsal body bars. It can be further distinguished from C. reficulatus.C. collaris, C . nebrius, and C . dickersonae by the absence of black oral melanin. It can be further distinguished from C. reticulatus, C. collaris, and C. nebrius by the presence in adult males of a strongly laterally compressed tail, a white or off-white dorsal caudal stripe, a pale tan or white patternless region on the dorsal surface of the head, and enlarged dark brown or black inguinal patches (rather than the small inguinal patches of C. nebrilrs and some C. collaris). It can be distinguished from C. antiqutts and further distinguished from C. retic~rlatusin the absence of a dorsal pattern composed ofa white reticulum with some or all of the reticulations enclosing black pigmentation. It can be further distinguished from C. grismeri by the absence ofa greenish tint to the white bar that separates the anterior and posterior collars, by the hindlimb pattern consisting of white reticulations or spots on a brown field (field occasionally yellowish distal to the knee), by the presence ofolive green or burnt orange ventrolateral coloration, and by its much larger maximum adult SVL. It can be distinguished from C.insularis by its broader nasal process of the premaxilla and its more strongly developed posterior collar (McGuire 1996: 95). 
CommentSynonymy: Crotaphytus fasciatus MOCQUARD 1899 is a junior primary homonym of Crotaphytus fasciatus HALLOWELL 1853, which itself is a junior synonym of C. wislizenii BAIRD & GIRARD 1852 (now Gambelia). Hence MOCQUARD replaced the name by C. fasciolatus. The correct name for this taxon is therefore C. fasciolatus. The name Crotaphytus fasciolatus has been treated as a junior synonym of C. wislizenii, but has never been used for the species for which it was established (McGuire 2000).

Crotaphytus insularis vestigium has been granted precedence over Crotaphytus fasciolatus Mocquard, 1903, by action of the ICZN (Anonymous, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 59: 228-229). 
EtymologyFrom the Latin vestigium, a footprint, a track, a trace. In reference to the reduced collars of this species (Tanner, personal communication, 1993, cited in McGuire 1996: 95).
  • Anonymous 2002. Opinion 2014 (Case 3136) Crotaphytus vestigium Smith 7 Tanner 1972 (Reptilia, Squamata): specific name conserved. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 59 (3): 228-229 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Goldberg, Stephen R. and Charles R. Bursey. 2010. Crotaphytus vestigium: Endoparasites. Herpetological Review 41 (3): 353 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Lipfert, J. 2004. Halsbandleguane (die Gattung Crotaphytus). Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 64 pp. - get paper here
  • McGuire, J. A. 1996. Phylogenetic systematics of crotaphytid lizards (Reptilia: Iguania: Crotaphytidae). Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 32: 1-142 - get paper here
  • McGuire, Jimmy A. 2000. Crotaphytus vestigium SMITH & TANNER 1972 (Reptilia: Squamata): proposed conservation of the specific name [Case 3136]. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 57 (3): 158-160 - get paper here
  • Mocquard, FRANÇOIS 1903. Notes herpétologiques. I. Description d'espèces nouvelles de la collection du Muséum. Bull. Mus. Natl. d'Hist. Nat., Paris 9 (5): 209-220. - get paper here
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Savage, J. M.; McGuire, J. A.; Etheridge, R. 2001. On the proposed conservation of the name Crotophytus vestigium Smith & Tanner, 1972 (Reptilia, Squamata). Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 58 (1): 59 - get paper here
  • SCHULZE NIEHOFF, P. 2018. Mearns‘ Felsenleguan Petrosaurus mearnsi (Stejneger, 1894) – Lebensweise, Haltung und Erstnachzucht im Terrarium. Sauria 40 (1): 58-74 - get paper here
  • Smith, N.M. and Tanner,W.W. 1972. Two new subspecies of Crotaphytus (Sauria: Iguanidae). Great Basin Naturalist. 32: 25-34 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Werning, H. 2011. Tage im Frühjahr auf der Suche ach dem Baja-California-Halsbandleguan im Süden Kaliforniens. Iguana Rundschreiben 24 (1): 12-16
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
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