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Ctenophorus isolepis (FISCHER, 1881)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Amphibolurinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCtenophorus isolepis citrinus (STORR 1965)
Ctenophorus isolepis gularis (STERNFELD 1925)
Ctenophorus isolepis isolepis (FISCHER 1881) 
Common NamesE: Military Sand-dragon, Military Dragon 
SynonymGrammatophora isolepis FISCHER 1881: 232
Amphibolurus isolepis — COGGER 1983
Phthanodon isolepis — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1984: 82
Phthanodon isolepis — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 19
Ctenophorus isolepis — COGGER 2000: 316
Ctenophorus isolepis — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Ctenophorus isolepis — WILSON & SWAN 2010
Ctenophorus isolepis — CHAPPLE et al. 2019: 62

Ctenophorus isolepis gularis (STERNFELD 1925)
Amphibolurus maculatus gularis STERNFELD 1925: 231
Amphibolurus maculatus gularis — GLAUERT 1959
Phthanodon gularis — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1984: 82
Phthanodon gularis — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 18
Ctenophorus isolepis gularis — WILSON & SWAN 2013

Ctenophorus isolepis citrinus (STORR 1965)
Amphibolurus isolepis citrinus STORR 1965
Phthanodon citrinus — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1984: 82
Phthanodon citrinus — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 18
Ctenophorus isolepis citrinus — WILSON & SWAN 2013 
DistributionAustralia (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia)

isolepis: N Western Australia and Northern Territory; Type locality: Western Australia. Restricted to Nickol Bay, W. A. by STORR 1965.

citrinus: southern interior of Western Australia; Type locality: 2 mi W of Boorabbin, in 31° 12’ S, 120° 17’ E, W. A.

gularis: C and S interior of Western Australia and C Australia
rubens: Exmouth Gulf region, Western Australia; Type locality: Hermannsburg Mission, upper Finke River, N. T.  
TypesLectotype: SMNS 2051. Lectotype designated by Wells & Wellington (1985), although they state that the lectotype is "the larger of two specimens" under that number. Cogger et al. (1983) lists only a single specimen for SMNS 2051, but two specimens (the other types) under ZMB 10072.
Lectotype: SMF 10294, designated by Wermuth (1967); Paralectotype: ZMB 29662, "Finke-River, Zentralaustralien", leg. M. Leonhardi. Terra typica: Missionsstation Hermannsburg, oberer Finke-Fluß, Zentralaustralien [gularis]
Holotype: WAM R21706 [citrinus] 
CommentSubspecies: Ctenophorus isolepis rubens (STORR 1965) has been elevated to full species.

Habitat: shrubs, hummock grass, sand.

Abundance: common, with more than 2000 specimens collected (Pianka 2011)

Diet: a large percentage of the diet of this species (30-80%) consists of ants (Lucas et al. 2023). 
EtymologyPresumably named after the Greek isos (equal) plus lepis (scale), referring to the equally sized small body scales. (G. Shea, pers. comm., 9 Feb 2024) 
  • Chapple, David G.; Reid Tingley, Nicola J. Mitchell, Stewart L. Macdonald, J. Scott Keogh, Glenn M. Shea, Philip Bowles, Neil A. Cox, John C. Z. Woinarski 2019. The Action Plan for Australian Lizards and Snakes 2017. CSIRO, 663 pp. DOI: 10.1071/9781486309474 - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Doughty, P.; Maryan, B.; Melville, J. & Austin, J. 2007. A new species of Ctenophorus (Lacertlia: Agamidae) from Lake Disappointment, Western Australia. Herpetologica 63 (1): 72-86 - get paper here
  • Ellis, Ryan J. 2019. An annotated type catalogue of the dragon lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae) in the collection of the Western Australian Museum. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 115–132 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1881. Beschreibung neuer Reptilien. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 47 (1): 225-238 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Glauert, L. 1959. Herpetological Miscellanea. XI. Dragon Lizards of the Genus Amphibolurus. Western Australian Naturalist 7 (2): 42-51 - get paper here
  • Losos, J.B. 1987. Postures of the Military Dragon (Ctenophorus isolepis) in relation to substrate temperature Amphibia-Reptilia, 8(4): 419-423. - get paper here
  • Lucas B Q Cavalcanti, Gabriel C Costa, Guarino R Colli, Eric R Pianka, Laurie J Vitt, Daniel O Mesquita, 2023. Myrmecophagy in lizards: evolutionary and ecological implications. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2023;, zlad175, - get paper here
  • Melville, Jane; Schulte, James A.; Larson, Allan 2001. A molecular phylogenetic study of ecological diversification in the Australian lizard genus Ctenophorus. Journal of Experimental Zoology: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 291(4): 339-353 - get paper here
  • Pianka, Eric R. 1971. Ecology of the agamid lizard Amphibolurus isolepis in western Australia. Copeia 1971 (3): 527-536 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, A. & Hallermann, J. 1997. The Type Specimens in the Herpetological Collection of the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. Ser. A (553): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, D. 2010. Naturterrarium oder Heimtierkäfig? Reptilia (Münster) 15 (84): 24-33 - get paper here
  • Sternfeld, R. 1925. Beiträge zur Herpetologie Inner-Australiens. Abhandlungen Herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 38: 221—251
  • Storr, G. M. 1965. The Amphibolurus maculatus species-group (Lacertilia: Agamidae) in Western Australia. J R. Soc. West. Aust. 48: 45-54
  • Storr, SMITH & JOHNSTONE 1983. Lizards of Western Australia 2, Dragons and Monitors. p. 29, Pl. 5
  • Wells R W; Wellington C R 1984. A synopsis of the class Reptilia in Australia. Australian Journal of Herpetology 1 (3-4): 73-129 [31 Dec 1983 on cover]
  • Wermuth, Heinz 1967. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Agamidae. Das Tierreich 86: 1-127
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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