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Ctenotus schomburgkii (PETERS, 1863)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Barred Wedge-snout Ctenotus 
SynonymLygosoma schomburgkii PETERS 1863: 231
Hinulia muelleri FISCHER 1882
Lygosoma fischeri BOULENGER 1887 (nom. nov. pro Hinulia muelleri)
Lygosoma fisheri [sic] — STIRLING & ZIETZ 1893: 172
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) fischeri — SMITH 1937: 220
Ctenotus schomburgkii — STORR 1969
Ctenotus schomburgkii — COGGER 1983: 152
Ctenotus schomburgkii — COGGER 2000: 442
Ctenotus schomburgkii — WILSON & SWAN 2010 
DistributionAustralia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia)

Type locality: Loos, 4. 5 km W Gawler (as Buchsfelde), S. A.  
TypesLectotype: ZMB 4713a (larger of two specimens under this number), Buchsfelde, SA, collected R. Schomburgk, designated by STORR 1971 (but see Peterson & Shea, 1987, who argue that this specimen was not part of the type series, in not agreeing with the type description).
Syntypes: SMNS 2253 (rediscovered by A. Kupfer, pers. comm., 17 March 2019), ZMB 10073 (not found), from Nickol Bay, W. A. [Hinulia muelleri] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A member of the schomburkgii group, distinguishable from C. brooksi euclae by its dark dorsal colouration and two presuboculars (Storr 1974: 92).

Description. Snout-vent length (mm): 30- 49 (40.7). Length of appendages (% SVL): tail 163-214 (188); foreleg 24-32 (27.0); hind leg 43-61 (51.2). Nasals and prefrontals separated. Supraocu lars 4 (rarely 5), with 3 (rarely 2) in contact with frontal. Supraciliaries mostly 7, occa sionally 6, rarely 8. Palpebrals 7-10 (9.0). Sec ond loreal 1.2-2.1 (1.68) times as wide as high. Upper labials 7 (occasionally 6 or 8). Ear lobules 2-5 (3.2), short and obtuse, the first usually much the largest. Nuchals 2-5 (3.6). Midbody scale rows 24-29 (26.1). Lamellae imder fourth toe 20-26 (23.0). Dorsally olive grey or olive brown, unmarked in south, variably marked with black in north (usually with a vertebral, dorsal, and laterodor- sal line). White dorsolateral line conspicuous only when margined above with black. Black upper lateral zone enclosing a series of pale vertical bars which may be very narrow or re placed by one or two series of dots; extending as a black stripe forward through orbit to tip of snout and back to about middle of tail. Nar row black lower lateral zone indented or spotted with white. Limbs boldly streaked with black (Storr 1974: 92). 
CommentSynonymy mainly after COGGER 1983.

The syntype series of Lygosoma schomburgkii is mixed and contains also Ctenotus uber orientalis (PETERSON & SHEA 1987, HUTCHINSON & DONELLAN 1999). Hinulia muelleri Fischer 1882, a junior secondary homonym of Scincus mulleri Schlegel 1837 at the time BOULENGER renamed it.

Abundance: not uncommon, with more than 200 specimens collected (Pianka 2011)

Limb morphology: 5 digits, 5 toes (Singhal et al. 2018, Cogger 2014) 
EtymologyNamed after Moritz Richard Schomburgk (1811-1891), who was working as a gardener at the Palace of Sans Souci (1840) when he had the opportunity to accompany his more famous brother. 
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1887. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropsidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. London: 575 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper, P. J.; Amey, A. P.; Kutt, A. S. 2002. A new species of Ctenotus (Scincidae) from central Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 48(1):85-92 - get paper here
  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • Fischer, J. G. 1882. Herpetologische Bemerkungen. I. Bemerkungen über einzelne Stücke der Schlangensammlung des kön. Zoologischen Museums in Dresden. . II. Neue Eidechen aus Australien und Polynesien. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 48: 281-302 - get paper here
  • Hutchinson,M.N. & DONNELLAN,S.C. 1999. Genetic variation and taxonomy of the lizards assigned to Ctenotus uber orientalis STORR (Squamata: Scincidae) with description of a new species. Rec. South Austral. Mus. 32 (2): 173-189 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1863. Eine Übersicht der von Hrn. Richard Schomburgk an das zoologische Museum eingesandten Amphibien, aus Buchsfelde bei Adelaide in Südaustralien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1863 (April): 228-236 - get paper here
  • Peterson H; Shea G M 1987. Reidentification of Ctenotus schomburgkii (Peters, 1864) (Lacertilia: Scincidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 111 (1-2): 115-117 - get paper here
  • Pianka, E. R. 1969. Sympatry of desert lizards (Ctenotus) in Western Australia. Ecology 50: 1012-1030 - get paper here
  • Pianka, E. R. 1969. Habitat specificity, speciation, and species density in Australian desert lizards. Ecology 50 (3): 498-502 - get paper here
  • Prates, I., Singhal, S., Marchán-Rivadeneira, M. R., Grundler, M. R., Moritz, C., Donnellan, S., & Rabosky, D. 2021. Genetic and Ecogeographic Controls on Species Cohesion in Australia’s Most Diverse Lizard Radiation. American Naturalist 199 (2): E57-E75 - get paper here
  • Rabosky, Daniel L.; Stephen C. Donnellan, Michael Grundler, and Irby J. Lovette 2014. Analysis and Visualization of Complex Macroevolutionary Dynamics: An Example from Australian Scincid Lizards. Syst Biol 2014 63: 610-627 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, A. & Hallermann, J. 1997. The Type Specimens in the Herpetological Collection of the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. Ser. A (553): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Simpson, R., Nimmo, D., Wright, L., Wassens, S., & Michael, D. 2023. Decline in semi-arid reptile occurrence following habitat loss and fragmentation. Wildlife Research - get paper here
  • Singhal, Sonal; Huateng Huang, Maggie R. Grundler, María R. Marchán-Rivadeneira, Iris Holmes, Pascal O. Title, Stephen C. Donnellan, and Daniel L. Rabosky 2018. Does Population Structure Predict the Rate of Speciation? A Comparative Test across Australia’s Most Diverse Vertebrate Radiation. The American Naturalist - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
  • Stirling, E. C., and A. Zietz. 1893. Scientific results of the Elder Exploring Expedition. Vertebrata. Mammalia, Reptilia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 16:154-176. - get paper here
  • Storr G M 1969. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the Eastern Division of Western Australia. J. Royal Soc. Western Australia 51: 97-109 - get paper here
  • Storr G M 1987. On the identification of Ctenotus schomburgkii (Peters). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 111 (1-2): 119. - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M. 1971. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in South Australia. Rec. South Austral. Mus. 16 (6): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M. 1974. The genus Ctenotus (Lacertilia: Scincidae) in the South-west and Eucla Divisions of Western Australia. J R. Soc. West. Aust. 56: 86-93 [1973]
  • Storr, G. M., Smith, L. A. & Johnstone, R. E. 1981. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Perth: University of Western Australia Press and Western Australian Museum, 200 pp.
  • Storr, G. M.; L. A. Smith, and R. E. Johnstone 1999. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Revised Edition. Western Australian Museum
  • Swan, G.; Sadlier, R.; Shea, G. 2017. A field guide to reptiles of New South Wales. Reed New Holland, 328 pp.
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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