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Cuora amboinensis (DAUDIN, 1801)

IUCN Red List - Cuora amboinensis - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
SubspeciesCuora amboinensis amboinensis DAUDIN 1802
Cuora amboinensis aurantiae BLANCK, GAILLARD, PROTIVA, WHEATLEY, SHI, LIU, RAY & ANDERS 2023 
Common NamesE: Amboina Box Turtle; Southeast Asian Box Turtle
kamaroma: Domed Malayan Box Turtle
couro: Indonesian Box Turtle
lineata: Burmese Box Turtle
G: Asiatische Dosenschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo fasciata SUCKOW 1798
Testudo amboinensis DAUDIN 1801
Testudo melanocephala DAUDIN 1801
Cistudo amboinensis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 215
Cistudo Amboinensis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 224
Cuora amboinensis GRAY 1856: 264
Terrapene amboinensis — SOWERBY 1872
Cyclemys amboinensis BOULENGER 1889
Cyclemys amboinensis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 302
Cyclemys amboinensis — MERTENS 1930
Cuora amboinensis — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 443
Cuora amboinensis amboinensis — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Cuora amboinensis amboinensis — BROWN et al. 2013
Cuora amboinensis amboinensis — TTWG 2021 
DistributionIndia (Nicobar Islands, Assam, Mizoram), Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar (= Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, West Malaysia (incl. Pulau Pangkor, Tuba Island), Singapore, Philippines (Panay, Luzon, Mindanao, Cebu, Sibuyan etc.),
E Indonesia (Sulawesi = Celebes, Amboina, Sumatra, Borneo, Nias, Enggano,Simeulue, Java, Sumbawa, Ambon, Halmahera, Ceram = Seram, Maluku, Natuna islands)

couro: Sumatra, Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Sumbawa; Type locality: “Java” [Indonesia].

kamaroma: S mainland Indochina, Thailand (Phang-Nga etc.), Indonesia (Borneo, Java), N Philippines [introduced]); Type locality: about 50 km N Bangkok, Thailand.

lineata: (Kachin Province, Myanmar [Burma] and adjacent Yunnan Province, China). Type locality: “Myitkyina, Kachin Province, Myanmar (Burma).”

amboinensis: (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines); Type locality: "Amboine" Island (or “Amboina”), Indonesia.  
ReproductionViable (though not really healthy) hybrids between Mauremys annamensis and Cuora amboinensis kamaroma have been described by FRITZ & MENDAU (2002). Hybrids between Chinemys reevesii and Cuora amboinensis kamaroma have been described by GALGON & FRITZ (2002). 
TypesNeotype: MHNG 748.011, an unsexed juvenile, SCL 61 mm, from “Amboine” the Island of Ambon, Moluccas, Indonesia, collected by M. Bedot and C. Pictet during their expedition to Ambon in 1890, donated to the MHNG in 1910 (designated by Blanck et al. 2023). Holotype: lost (was MNHN, according to Bourret 1941:149). Not located (I. Ineich, pers. comm., March 2019)
Holotype. NMW 41494:1 (Figs. 18 and 20), adult female SCL 198mm from Palu, Sulawesi, Indonesia; collected in 1998 by Marco Jiménez. [aurantiae]
Holotype: MNHN-RA 7931 [couro]
Holotype: ZMH R00277, young female [kamaroma]
Holotype: USNM 122189 [Cuora amboinensis lineata] 
CommentIllustration in Elaphe 10 (1): 26 [2002].

Subspecies: The questions of whether or not C. a. kamaroma actually occurs in the Philippines and, if so, what is its island distribution, cannot be answered at this time. Philippine Cuora amboinensis cannot be identified to subspecies by their plastron patterns alone [ERNST et al. 2011].

Synonymy: Ernst et al. 2016 synonymized Cuora amboinensis lineata with kamaroma and couro with amboinensis.

Type species: Testudo amboinensis DAUDIN 1802 is the type species of the genus Cuora GRAY 1855: 41.

Ernst & Barbour 1989 included 9 species in the genus: amboinensis, chriskarannarum, flavomarginata, galbinifrons, hainanensis, mccordi, pani, trifasciata, and yunnanensis.

Distribution: see map in TTWG 2017: 86 for all subspecies. 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
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