You are here » home advanced search Cuora galbinifrons

Cuora galbinifrons BOURRET, 1939

IUCN Red List - Cuora galbinifrons - Critically Endangered, CR

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Cuora galbinifrons?

Add your own observation of
Cuora galbinifrons »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Indochinese Box Turtle
G: Hinterindische Scharnierschildkröte, Dreistreifen-Scharnierschildkröte
Chinese: 黄额闭壳龟 
SynonymCuora galbinifrons BOURRET 1939
Cyclemys flavomarginata hainanensis LI 1958
Cyclemys hainanensis — HU, DJAO & HUANG 1975
Cuora galbinifrons — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 23
Cistoclemmys hainanensis — KING & BURKE 1989
Cuora galbinifrons serrata IVERSON & MCCORD 1992
Cuora serrata — FRITZ & OBST 1997
Cuora galbinifrons galbinifrons — BECKER 1999
Cuora galbinifrons — ZIEGLER 2002: 137
Cistoclemmys galbinifrons galbinifrons — OBST 2003: 17
Cistoclemmys galbinifrons — BONIN et al. 2006
Cuora galbinifrons — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Cuora galbinifrons galbinifrons — LIU et al. 2019
Cuora galbinifrons — TTWG 2021 
DistributionVietnam (Tonkin, Annam), China (Hainan Island, Guangxi)

hainanensis: China (Hainan Island); Type locality: Dali of Diaulo Shan, Hainan, People's Republic of China.

Type locality: Tam-Dao (Tonkin), Bach-Na (Annam) and Linh-Can (Ha-Tinh, Annam).  
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 1948.36, fide Bour 2005, erroneously given as MNHN-RA 1948.60 by Obst & Reimann 1994; Paralectotype: MNHN-RA 1948.0037, also the holotype of C. bourreti (previously NUH T54)
Holotype: FU 200 [hainanensis] 
CommentAllozyme and mitochondrial DNA data, together with morphological support and field information, provide compelling evidence that Cuora serrata is of hybrid origin with Cuora galbinifrons (bourreti) and Cuora (Pyxidea) mouhotii as parental species (PARHAM et al. 2001). C. g. galbinifrons, bourreti, and picturata are also morphologically diagnosable, and thus STUART & PARHAM (2004) recommend elevating each to full species. Struijk & Blanck 2016 show that C. serrata is a hybrid of C. picturata x Cuora mouhotii obsti.

Illustration in Elaphe 7 (4): 4 and Draco 13 (4): 93 (2003), of bourreti in Elaphe 8 (4): 72.

The status of C. hainanensis remains unclear. See discussion in Zhao & Adler 1993: 166. It is not mentioned in a recent list by OBST (2003). Cuora (galbinifrons) hainanensis nests within the galbinifrons clade, and therefore STUART & PARHAM (2004) consider it as a synonym of C. galbinifrons, as supported by morphology.

Cuora (galbinifrons) ‘‘serrata ’’is known to be a hybrid of male Cuora mouhotii and female C.galbinifrons, and our findings show that C.‘‘serrata ’’originates from both female galbinifrons and bourreti. 
  • Abdala, V.; Manzano, A.S. & Herrel, A. 2008. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints? J. Anat. 213: 159–172 - get paper here
  • Anonymous 2016. Testudinate China [in both English and Chinese] Testudinate Industry Branch of the China Fishery Association, published on occasion of WCH8; author not explicitly stated, 54 pp.
  • Augustine L., Haislip N. 2019. Husbandry and reproduction of the Indochinese box turtle Cuora galbinifrons, Bourret's box turtle Cuora bourreti and Southern Vietnam box turtle Cuora picturata in North America. International Zoo Yearbook - get paper here
  • Augustine, L. & Mendyk, R. W. 2012. Cuora galbinifrons (Indochinese box turtle) post-copulatory sniffing behavior. Herpetological Review 43: 264 - get paper here
  • Blanck, T. 2013. Zu Besuch bei Cuora galbinifrons auf Hainan, China. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (99): 100-109 - get paper here
  • Borek, A; MIller, P; Yoshimi, D & Pramuk, J 2018. Husbandry of the Indochinese Box Turtle (Cuora galbinifrons: Geoemydidae) at Woodland Park Zoo. Herpetological Review 49 (2): 264-270 - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2005. The type specimens of Cuora galbinifrons Bourret, 1939. Emys 12 (1): 33-36
  • Bourret, R. 1939. Notes herpétologiques sur l'Indochine française. XVIII. Reptiles et batraciens reçus au Laboratoire des Sciences Naturelle de l'Université au cours de l'année 1939. Descriptions de quatre espéces et d'une variété nouvelles. Bulletin Général de l'Instruction Publique. Hanoi. 19 (4, décembre): 5-39.
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Fiebig, J. & Lehr, E. 2000. Haltung und Erstnachzucht der Bourret-Scharnierschildkröte Cuora galbinifrons bourreti OBST & REIMANN 1994, mit Anmerkungen zum Bedrohungsstatus. Salamandra 36 (3): 147-156 - get paper here
  • Fong, J.J. & Qiao, G.X. 2010. New localities of endangered Chinese turtles from museum specimens and the practical and ethical challenges using and reporting natural history collection data. Zootaxa 2393: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Fritz, U. & Obst, F. J. 1997. Zum taxonomischen Status von Cuora galbinifrons serrata Iverson and McCord, 1992 und Pyxidea mouhotii (Gray, 1862) (Reptilia: Testudines: Bataguridae). Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 49: 261–279. - get paper here
  • FRITZ, U., ZIEGLER, T., HERRMANN, H.-W. & E. LEHR 2002. Intergradation between subspecies of Cuora galbinifrons BOURRET, 1939 and Pyxidea mouhotii (GRAY, 1862) in southern North Vietnam (Reptilia: Testudines: Geoemydidae). Faunistische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden 23: 59-74
  • Fritz, Uwe; Petzold, Antje; Auer, Markus 2006. Osteology in the Cuora galbinifrons complex suggests conspecifity of C. bourreti and C. galbinifrons, with notes on shell osteology and phalangeal formulae within the Geoemydidae. Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (2): 195-205 - get paper here
  • Gong, Shi-ping; Hai-tao Shi, Ai-wu Jiang, Jonathan J. Fong, Daniel Gaillard, and Ji-chao Wang 2017. Disappearance of endangered turtles within China’s nature reserves. Current Biology 27: R163–R171 - get paper here
  • Hagen, Chris. 2014. Conserving turtles in the South Carolina low country. Turtle Survival 2014: 6-10 - get paper here
  • He, Jing; Zhou, Ting; Rao, Ding Qi; Zhang, Ya Ping 2007. Molecular identification and phylogenetic position of Cuora yunnanensis. Chinese Science Bulletin 52 (23): 3305-3309
  • Heuberger, W. & Heuberger, K. 2008. Erfolgreiche Haltung und mehrfache Nachzucht von Cistoclemmys (galbinifrons) bourreti, der hinterindischen Scharnierschildkröte. Reptilia (Münster) 13 (72): 64-71 - get paper here
  • Hu S., Djao [Zhao] E., and Huang Z. 1975. Three new species of reptiles from Hainan Island, Guangdong Province (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Zool. Sinica, Peking, 21(4): 379-384 (English translation by Akihiro Koshikawa 1982, Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv, Washington, 53: 1-9). - get paper here
  • Iverson, J. B. & McCord, W. P. 1992. A new subspecies of Cuora galbinifrons (Testudines: Batagurinae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 105: 433–439. - get paper here
  • Kowalski, T., W. Grossmann, H.-J. ZILGER & B.-M. ZWANZIG 2011. Herpetologische Beobachtungen im Sultanat Oman: Das Saiq - Plateau im Jebel al - Akhdar. Sauria 33 (1): 29-50 - get paper here
  • Kunz, K. 2003. Schützen wir Hybriden? Reptilia (Münster) 8 (42): 8 - get paper here
  • Lehr E, Fritz U, Obst FJ 1998. Die Unterarten von Cuora galbinifrons BOURRET 1939 (Reptilia: Testudines: Bataguridae). Zool. Abh. Staatl. Tierk. Dresden 50 (1): 77-97 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E., U. FRITZ & F. J. OBST. 1998. Cuora galbinifrons picturata subsp. nov., eine Unterart der Hinterindischen Scharnierschildkröte. Herpetofauna 20 (113): 5-11. - get paper here
  • Li, Z.Y. 1958. Report on the investigation of reptiles of Hainan Island. Chinese Journal of Zoology 2:234-239
  • Liu X, Li W, Ye Z, Zhu Y, Hong X, Zhu X. 2019. Morphological characterization and phylogenetic relationships of Indochinese box turtles—The Cuora galbinifrons complex. Ecol Evol. 9: 13030–13042 - get paper here
  • Lourenço, João M.; Julien Claude, Nicolas Galtier, Ylenia Chiari 2011. Dating cryptodiran nodes: Origin and diversification of the turtle superfamily Testudinoidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (1): - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Obst, F. J. & M. REIMANN 1994. Bemerkenswerte Variabilität bei Cuora galbinifrons BOURRET, 1939, mit Beschreibung einer neuen geographischen Unterart: Cuora galbinifrons bourreti subsp. nov. (Reptilia: Testudines: Bataguridae). Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 48 (7): 125-138.
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
  • Parham, James Ford ; W. Brian Simison; Kenneth H. Kozak; Chris R. Feldman and Haitao Shi 2001. New Chinese turtles: endangered or invalid? A reassessment of two species using mitochondrial DNA, allozyme electrophoresis and known-locality specimens. Animal Conservation 4: 357–367 [erratum in Animal Conservation 5:86] - get paper here
  • Pauler, I. 1980. Die Schildkrötengattung Cuora. Herpetofauna 2 (6): 15-18 - get paper here
  • Pham, Van Thong 2021. Das Bach Ma Herpetology Rescue Center: Planung für eine neue Amphibien- und Reptilienauffangsta- tion in Zentralvietnam. Elaphe 2021 (1): 7-9 [published online Dec 2020]
  • Richter, Susann; Auer, Markus; Fritz, Uwe 2007. Variation of hyoid morphology in geoemydid terrapins. Amphibia-Reptilia 28 (1): 148-153 - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Spinks, Phillip Q.; Shaffer, H. Bradley 2007. Conservation phylogenetics of the Asian box turtles (Geoemydidae, Cuora): mitochondrial introgression, numts, and inferences from multiple nuclear loci. Conservation Genetics 8(3):641-657 - get paper here
  • Stanford, C.B. et al. 2020. Turtles and Tortoises Are in Trouble. Current Biology 30: R721–R735 - get paper here
  • Struijk, Richard P.J.H.; and Torsten E.G. Blanck 2016. A likely new natural hybrid form of “Cuora serrata” (Cuora picturata x Cuora mouhotii obsti) and its presence in the wild in Phu Yen province, Vietnam. Herpetology Notes 9: 73-80 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.L. and James Ford Parham 2004. Molecular phylogeny of the critically endangered Indochinese box turtle (Cuora galbinifrons). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31 (1): 164-177 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Xiao, Fanrong; Jichao Wang, Zaizhong Long, and Haitao Shi 2017. Diet of Two Endangered Box Turtles (Cuora spp.) on Hainan Island, China. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2017, Vol. 16, No. 2: 236-238. - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T. 2002. Die Amphibien und Reptilien eines Tieflandfeuchtwald-Schutzgebietes in Vietnam. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 342 pp. - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T. 2012. Erforschung und Erhalt der Artenvielfalt: Neue Wege des Kölner Zoos in Südostasien. Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoos 55 (3): 111-
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator