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Cyclura carinata HARLAN, 1824

IUCN Red List - Cyclura carinata - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaIguanidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Turks & Caicos Iguana, Turks Island Iguana, Turks and Caicos Rock Iguana
G: Wirtelschwanz 
SynonymCyclura carinata HARLAN 1824: 250
Iguana (Cyclura ) Carinata — GRAY 1831 (in CUVIER; edit. GRIFFITH)
Cyclura (Cyclura ) carinata — FITZINGER 1843 (partim)
Cyclura carinata — COPE 1886: 262
Cyclura carinata — BOULENGER 1885: 193
Cyclura carinata carinata — BARBOUR 1935
Cyclura carinata bartschi COCHRAN 1931
Cyclura carinata — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 388 
DistributionTurks I [HR 31: 253], Caicos I [HR 31: 253], Bahama I, Mayaguana I (E Bahamas)

carinata: Turks and Caicos Is. Type locality: "Turk's Island."

bartschi: Bahama Is.: Booby Cay east of Mayaguana I.  
TypesHolotype: Unlocated.
Holotype: USNM 81212 [bartschi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): differs from all other iguanid genera in possessing the following combination of character states: a) modal number of premaxillary teeth greater than seven, b) presence of toe combs formed by enlargement of anterior keels of subdigital scales and fusion of their bases, c) snout covered by large platelike scales in most taxa, d) tail bears verticils of enlarged spinous scales (John Iverson et al., pers. comm.).

DESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 360 mm, in females to 292 mm); no enlarged frontal scale; azygous scales in prefrontal suture absent; 7-13 (mode 9) scales between anterior canthal scales; first prefrontal never in contact with precanthal; 6-11 (mode 9) vertical loreal rows; 11-17 (mode 15) suboculars to anterior border of tympanum; no clearly demarcated sublabials; 1-4 (mode 2) postmentals; 26-48 femoral pores in single row; dorsal crest scales 11-20 between occiput and shoulder, 39-71 between shoulder and sacrum, 6-15 between sacrum and first caudal verticil, total dorsal crest scales between occiput and first caudal verticil 61-101; dorsal crest scales on neck usually higher than body crest scales, body crest scales usually higher than postsacral crest scales; 46-74 scales in fifth caudal verticil; 16-25 dorsolateral body scales in naris-eye distance; rostral scale always in contact with nasals. Dorsum gray, variegated with dull tan on back and sides or with paler gray to cream on head and neck; venter bluish, greenish, or dirty gray; dorsal crest scales of males blue-gray; juveniles drab gray with 4-6 brown, anterior crossbars not extending onto sides but forming an obscure series of inconspicuous bars which fade laterally, venter unpattemed and unstreaked but stippled or mottled dark gray (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 388). 
CommentIllustrations: Barbour and Noble, 1916; Auffenberg, 1975; Schwartz and Carey, 1977; Iverson, 1979.

BRYAN et al. (2007) found insufficient genetic differentiation between the subspecies of C. carinata and suggested to synonymize them.

Type species: Cyclura carinata HARLAN 1824 is the type species of the genus Cyclura HARLAN 1824 ((designated by FITZINGER 1843).

Synonymy: The genus Cyclura Warren, 1897 (Insecta: Drepanidae; Novit. zool. 4 : 14) is a junior Homonym.

Phylogeny: Reynolds et al. 2022 presented a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species in the genus. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “carinatus” = keeled (like a ship). 
  • Alberts, A.C.; Carter, R.L.; Hayes, W.K. & Martins, E.P. (eds.) 2004. Iguanas - Biology and Conservation. University of California Press, 356 pp. - get paper here
  • Auffenberg, W. 1975. The Dragon Isles: West Indian rock iguanas. Bahamas Nat., summer 1975:2-7.
  • Avery, D. F.; Tanner, W. W. 1971. Evolution of the iguanine lizards (Sauria, Iguanidae) as determined by osteological and myological characters. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 12 (3): 1-79
  • Barbour, T. 1916. Additional notes on West Indian reptiles and amphibians. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 29: 215-220. - get paper here
  • Barbour, T. and Noble, G.K. 1916. A revision of the lizards of the genus Cyclura. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 60 (4): 139-64. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Bryan, J.J.; Gerber, G.P.; Welch, M.E. & Stephen, C.L. 2007. Re-evaluating the Taxonomic Status of the Booby Cay Iguana, Cyclura carinata bartschi. Copeia 2007 (3): 734-739 - get paper here
  • Buckley, Larry J.; Kevin de Queiroz, Tandora D. Grant, Bradford D. Hollingsworth, John B. Iverson (Chair, <br />Stesha A. Pasachnik, and Catherine L. Stephen (Iguana Taxonomy Working Group, ITWG 2016. A Checklist of the Iguanas of the World (Iguanidae; Iguaninae). Herp. Cons. Biol. 11 (Monograph 6) - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. On the species of Iguaninae. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23 (122): 261-271 - get paper here
  • Harlan, R. 1824. Description of two species of Linnaean Lacerta, not before described, and construction of the new genus Cyclura. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia [1] 4 (2): 242-251. - get paper here
  • Iverson, J.B. 1979. Behavior and ecology of the rock iguana Cyclura carinata. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 24(3): 175-358. - get paper here
  • Lemm, J.M. & Alberts, A.C. 2012. Cyclura. Elsevier / Academic Press, 221 pp.
  • Malone,C.L.; Wheeler,T.; Taylor, J.F. & Davis,S.K. 2000. Phylogeography of the Caribbean Rock Iguana (Cyclura): implications for conservation and insights on the biogeographic history of the West Indies. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 17 (2): 269 - get paper here
  • Reynolds, R. G., Miller, A. H., Pasachnik, S. A., Knapp, C. R., Welch, M. E., Colosimo, G., ... & Iverson, J. B. 2022. Phylogenomics and Historical Biogeography of West Indian Rock Iguanas (genus Cyclura). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 107548 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Carey, M. 1977. Systematics and evolution in the West Indian iguanid genus Cyclura. Stud. Fauna Curaçao and Carib. Is. 53(173):15-97. - get paper here
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