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Higher TaxaCylindrophiidae, Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymCylindrophis subocularis KIECKBUSCH, MECKE, HARTMANN, EHRMANTRAUT, O’SHEA & KAISER 2016 
DistributionIndonesia (C Java)

Type locality: Grabag, Purworejo Regency (formerly Koetoardjo), Central Java Province (Jawa Tengah), Java, Indonesia  
Reproductionviviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: RMNH RENA 8785 (Figs. 3−4; Table 1), an adult female, collected by Felix Kopstein in February 1937. The original label for this specimen states “Grabag, Koetoardjo, Midden Java. +10 m.” Paratypes. RMNH RENA specimens were collected by Kopstein at the type locality. RMNH RENA 8958 (Fig. 5A), a gravid female, was collected in October 1937; RMNH RENA 8959 (Fig. 5B), an adult female, was collected in November 1937; RMNH RENA 11257 (Fig. 5C), an adult male, was collected in August 1937; RMNH RENA 11263 (Fig. 5D), an adult male, was collected in August 1937; RMNH RENA 47929 (Fig. 5E), an adult male, was collected in November 1937. NMW 21559.1 (Fig. 5F), an unsexed adult specimen from Java (no precise locality provided), was also collected by Kopstein, presumably during 1937, but the date is unknown. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of the genus Cylindrophis that can be readily distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) presence of a single subocular scale, positioned between 3rd and 4th or 4th and 5th supralabial, contacting postocular and separating 4th or 5th supralabial from orbit (Fig. 4B); (2) prefrontal in very narrow contact with or separated from orbit; (3) 19 smooth dorsal scale rows at midbody; (4) 6−7 supralabials; (5) 6−7 infralabials; (6) 190−196 ventrals; (7) 6−7 subcaudals; (8) 40−48 transverse light ventral blotches, and (9) light blotches on lateral surfaces of prefrontals (Fig. 3A, 4A & B in Kieckbusch et al. 2016). 
CommentSimilar species: C. ruffus

Abundance: known from only 8 specimens collected around 1937. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet subocularis is a compound adjective of sub (Latin: ‘under,’ ‘beneath’) and ocularis (Latin: ‘pertaining to the eye’), referring to the presence of a subocular scale in the new species. 
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • KIECKBUSCH, MAX; SVEN MECKE, LUKAS HARTMANN, LISA EHRMANTRAUT, MARK O’SHEA & HINRICH KAISER 2016. An inconspicuous, conspicuous new species of Asian pipesnake, genus Cylindrophis (Reptilia: Squamata: Cylindrophiidae), from the south coast of Jawa Tengah, Java, Indonesia, and an overview of the tangled taxonomic history of C. ruffus (Laurenti, 176 Zootaxa 4093 (1): 001–025 - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2017. The Snakes of Java, Bali and Surrounding Islands. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 435 pp. - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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