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Cyrtodactylus collegalensis (BEDDOME, 1870)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Forest Spotted gecko, Kollegal Ground Gecko 
SynonymGymnodactylus Collegalensis BEDDOME 1870: 173
Gymnodactylus collegalensis — SMITH 1935: 56
Gymnodactylus collegalensis — TAYLOR 1953: 1532
Gymnodactylus (Cyrtodactylus) collegalensis [sic] — WERMUTH 1965: 49
Cyrtodactylus collagalensis — KLUGE 1983: 475
Cyrtodactylus (Geckoella) collagalensis — ULBER & GERICKE 1988
Geckoella collagalensis — KLUGE 1991: 8
Cyrtodactylus collagalensis — RÖSLER 1995: 109
Cyrtodactylus (Geckoella) collagalensis — RÖSLER 2000: 65
Geckoella collegalensis — ZIESMANN et al. 2007
Cyrtodactylus cf. collegalensis — KÄSTLE et al. 2013: 439
Cyrtodactylus (Geckoella) collegalensis — WOOD et al. 2012 (by implication)
Geckoella collegalensis — AGARWAL & KARANTH 2015
Cyrtodactylus (Geckoella) collegalensis — AGARWAL et al. 2016
Cyrtodactylus collegalensis — NARAYANAN et al. 2022 
DistributionIndia (Karnataka, Kerala)

Type locality: "Balarangams... near Yellundur" (= Biligiri Rangan Hills, 11° 54'N; 77° 14'E, Mysore, Karnataka State, southwestern India).  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.25.28; Syntypes: BMNH 1946.8.25.28-29 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cyrtodactylus collegalensis (and members of the C. collegalensis complex) can be separated from all other Cyrtodactylus species by entirely homogeneous dorsal scalation, the absence of a precloacal groove, no enlarged precloacal or femoral scales, and no precloacal or femoral pores. 
CommentDistribution: northern Indian populations have been split off as C. varadgirii. C. collegalensis s. str. (as defined by Agarwal et al. 2016) are restricted to Karnataka. Previously, C. collegalensis was considered to be widespread in India (Western Ghats, Kerala, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra), but also to occur in Nepal and Sri Lanka.

Synonymy: Gymnodactylus speciosus BEDDOME 1870 has long been synonymized with C. collegalensis (e.g. by Smith 1935) but has been revalidated more recently (e.g. Agarwal et al. 2015, 2016). 
  • Agarwal, Ishan; K. Praveen Karanth 2014. A phylogeny of the only ground-dwelling radiation of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae): diversification of Geckoella across peninsular India and Sri Lanka. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 82: 193-199 - get paper here
  • AGARWAL, ISHAN; ZEESHAN A. MIRZA, SAUNAK PAL, SIMON T. MADDOCK, ANURAG MISHRA, AARON M. BAUER 2016. A new species of the Cyrtodactylus (Geckoella) collegalensis (Beddome, 1870) complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Western India. Zootaxa 4170 (2): 339–354 - get paper here
  • Amarasinghe, A. A. T., A. M. Bauer, I. Ineich, J. Rudge, M. M. Bahir & D. E. Gabadage 2009. The original descriptions and figures of Sri Lankan gekkonid lizards (Squamata: Gekkonidae) of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Taprobanica 1 (2): 83-106 - get paper here
  • Beddome, R. H. 1870. Descriptions of new reptiles from the Madras Presidency. Madras Monthly J. Med. Sci., 2: 169-176 [Reprint.: J. Soc. Bibliogr. Nat. Sci., London, 1 (10): 327-334, 1940]
  • Bhupathy, Subramanian & N. Sathishkumar 2013. Status of reptiles in Meghamalai and its environs, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5 (15): 4953-4961 - get paper here
  • Das, Indraneil & Abhijit Das 2017. A Naturalist’s Guide to the Reptiles of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 176 pp.
  • Ganesh, S. R.; M. Arumugam 2016. Species Richness of Montane Herpetofauna of Southern Eastern Ghats, India: A Historical Resume and a Descriptive Checklist. Russ. J. Herpetol. 23 (1): 7-24 - get paper here
  • Jayakumar, A.M. & P.O. Nameer 2018. Species composition and abundance estimates of reptiles in selected agroecosystems in southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(10): 12328–12336; - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Kluge, A.G. 1983. Cladistic relationships among gekkonid lizards. Copeia 1983 (2): 465-475 - get paper here
  • Krysko, K. L.; Rehman, H. & Auffenberg, K. 2007. A new species of Cyrtopodion (Gekkonidae: Gekkoninae) from Pakistan. Herpetologica 63 (1): 100-113 - get paper here
  • Mirza, Zeeshan A.; Saunak Pal, and Rajesh V. Sanap 2010. Notes on a ground gecko Geckoella cf. collegalensis Beddome, 1870 (Squamata, Sauria, Gekkonidae) from India. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (1): 8-14 - get paper here
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Narayanan, S., Das, S., Balan, A., Tom, R., Divakar, N., Kp, R., Hopeland, P. & Deepak, V. 2022. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from the southern Western Ghats of India. Vertebrate Zoology, 72: 729-743 - get paper here
  • Palot, M.J. 2015. A checklist of reptiles of Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(13): 8010–8022 - get paper here
  • Prasanna, Ganesh 1993. Leopard gecko (Cyrtodactylus collegalensis). Dactylus 1 (4): 33
  • Rösler, Herbert 1995. Geckos der Welt - Alle Gattungen. Urania, Leipzig, 256 pp.
  • SANAP, R.V., Z. A. MIRZA & K. ULLALKAR 2011. Notes on the Reproduction and Diet of Geckoella spp. in the North of the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. Sauria, Berlin 33 (2): 47-50 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Somaweera, R. & Somaweera, N. 2009. Lizards of Sri Lanka: a colour guide with field keys. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 304 pp.
  • Taylor, E.H. 1953. A review of the lizards of Ceylon. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 35 (12): 1525-1585 - get paper here
  • Ulber T & Gericke, F. 1988. Zur Problematik der Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse in der Gattung Cyrtodactylus Gray 1827 und Bemerkungen zur Gattung Nactus Kluge 1983 (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae). - Der Versuch einer - auch philosophischen - Analyse. Veröff. Naturhist. Mus. Schleusingen 3: 67-74
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738. - get paper here
  • Vyas, R. 1998. First record of the spotted forest gecko Geckoella collagalensis (Beddome, 1870) from Gir Forest, Gujarat State, India. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 95 (1): 123-124. - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2007. Herptofauna of Puma Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat, India. Reptile Rap (8): 10-15 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2007. Present conservation scenario of reptile fauna in Gujarat State, India. Indian Forester, Oct 2007: 1381-1394 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju. 2000. Notes on distribution and breeding ecology of Gekkoella collegalensis (Beddome, 1870). Hamadryad 25 (1): 45-46 - get paper here
  • Wermuth, H. 1965. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Gekkonidae, Pygopodidae, Xantusiidae. Das Tierreich (80): 1—246
  • Wood Jr, Perry L.; Matthew P. Heinicke, Todd R. Jackman, Aaron M. Bauer 2012. Phylogeny of bent-toed geckos (Cyrtodactylus) reveals a west to east pattern of diversification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 992–1003 - get paper here
  • Youmans, Timothy M. & L. Lee Grismer 2006. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Herpetological Natural History 10 (1): 61-70
  • Ziesmann, S.; Janzen, P. & Klaas, P. 2007. Die Vielfalt der Geckos [Sri Lankas]. Draco 7 (30): 38-44 - get paper here
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