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Cyrtodactylus pyinyaungensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, ZIN, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, LIN, KYAW & LWIN, 2017

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Pyinyaung bent-toed Gecko 
SynonymCyrtodactylus pyinyaungensis GRISMER, WOOD, THURA, ZIN, QUAH, MURDOCH, GRISMER, LIN, KYAW & LWIN 2017: 16 
DistributionMyanmar (Mandalay Region)

Type locality: 5.7 km north of Pyinyaung Village at the Apache Cement factory mining site, Mandalay Region, Myanmar (N20°52.191, E96°24.296; 472 m in elevation).  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 13149, Adult male collected on 30 March 2017 at 1030 h by Myint Kyaw Thura, Htet Kyaw, Myint Kyaw Lin, Mathhew L. Murdoch, Marta S. Grismer and L. Lee Grismer. Paratypes: Adult female BYU 52234 collected on 12 October 2016 at 1030 h by Evan S. H. Quah, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Matthew L. Murdoch, Myint Kyaw Thura, Thaw Zin, Aung Lin, Htet Kyaw and L. Lee Grismer from 5.3 km north of Pyinyaung Village at the Apache Cement factory mining site, Mandalay Region, Myanmar (N20°52.191, E96°24.296; 642 m in elevation). Adult female LSUHC 13150 and adult male LSUHC 13149 bear the same collection data as the holotype. Adult female 13147 bears the same collection as the holotype except that it was collected on 29 March 2017. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Cyrtodactylus pyinyaungensis sp. nov. differs from all congeners by having the unique combination of 25–30 paravertebral tubercles; 15–18 longitudinal rows of body tubercles; 30–36 ventral scales; relatively short digits (Fig. 3) with 16–19 subdigital lamellae beneath the fourth toe; raised to moderately keeled body tubercles; no caudal tubercles; enlarged femoral scales; femoral pores in males; relatively narrow subcaudal scales; top of head bearing large, irregularly shaped, dark markings and lacking a light-coloured reticulum; nuchal loop not divided medially, lacking an anterior azygous notch, posterior border straight; five or six dark dorsal bands arranged as medially confluent, large, hourglass-shaped, paravertebral markings, wider than interspaces, lacking lightened centres and edged with white tubercles; no dark markings or white tubercles in dorsal interspaces; weak ventrolateral fold and anterodorsal margin of thighs and brachia pigmented; 9–13 dark and light caudal bands; white caudal bands immaculate, not encircling tail; and dark caudal bands wider than white caudal bands.

Comparisons: Cyrtodactylus pyinyaungensis sp. nov. is part of a large clade of Indo-Burmese species within which it is closely related to C. annandalei from which it differs in having six vs. ten infralabial scales; 16–19 vs. ten total subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 30–36 vs. 43 ventral scales; 17 or 18 vs. ten or 11 femoral pores; eight vs. 11 or 12 precloacal pores; the presence vs. the absence of enlarged femoral scales; the dorsal bands being wider as opposed to narrower than the interspaces and edged with light-coloured tubercles; the dark caudal bands being wider than the light caudal bands; and the top of the head being blotched as opposed to patternless (Table 7). The sister population of C. pyinyanugensis sp. nov. from Popa Mountain approximately 120 km to the west was misidentified as C. feae (USNM 559805; Wood et al., 2012 and Agarwal et al., 2014) and was reported to L.L.G. to be C. peguensis (G. R. Zug, unpubl. data). Although we do not have access to this specimen, a comparison of its sister species, C. pyinyaungensis sp. nov., to one of the syntypes of C. peguensis (BMNH 1946.8.23.10) shows that although they are similar in overall colour pattern (Fig. 13), they differ in that the former has fewer rows of longitudinal tubercles (11 vs. 14); fewer ventral scales (30–36 vs. 43–45); enlarged femoral scales; and femoral pores (Table 7); and dorsal pattern composted of confluent paravertebral markings as opposed to large, separate, paravertebral spots (Fig. 13). Genetic distances among the species of this group range from 11.3 to 15.1%. 
CommentHabitat: C. pyinyaungensis sp. nov. is a habitat generalist in hilly areas bearing rocky substrates 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, pyinyaungensis (pronounced pin-yong-ensis), is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality. 
  • Grismer LL, Wood PL Jr, Quah ESH, Murdoch ML, Grismer MS, Herr MW, Espinoza RE, Brown RM, Lin A. 2018. A phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with descriptions of two new species from Myanmar. PeerJ 6: e5575 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. L., Wood, P. L., Poyarkov, N. A., Le, M. D., Kraus, F., Agarwal, I., ... & Grismer, J. L. 2021. Phylogenetic partitioning of the third-largest vertebrate genus in the world, Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Reptilia; Squamata; Gekkonidae) and its relevance to taxonomy and conservation. Vertebrate Zoology 71: 101–154 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. JR. WOOD, MYINT KYAW THURA, NAY MYO WIN, EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. Two more new species of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the fringes of the Ayeyarwady Basin, Myanmar. Zootaxa 4577 (2): 274–294 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., MYINT KYAW THURA, THAW ZIN, EVAN S. H. QUAH, MATTHEW L. MURDOCH, MARTA S. GRISMER, AUNG LIN, HTET KYAW and NGWE LWIN 2017. Twelve new species of Cyrtodactylus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from isolated limestone habitats in east- central and southern Myanmar demonstrate high localized diversity and unprecedented microendemism. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 182: 862-959 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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