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Dalmatolacerta oxycephala (SCHLEGEL, 1839)

IUCN Red List - Dalmatolacerta oxycephala - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Lacertinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Sharp-snouted Rock Lizard
G: Dalmatinische Spitzkopfeidechse
Croatian: oštroglava gušterica 
SynonymLacerta oxycephala SCHLEGEL in DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 235
Lacerta oxycephala — BEDRIAGA 1886: 276
Lacerta oxycephala var. tomasinii SCHREIBER 1891
Lacerta oxycephala — MEHELY 1909: 468
Lacerta oxycephala — MERTENS & MÜLLER 1940
Lacerta oxycephala oxycephala — TADDEI 1950
Lacerta oxycephala dalmatica — TADDEI 1950 (?)
Lacerta oxycephala tomasinii — TADDEI 1950
Lacerta oxycephala — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Archaeolacerta oxycephala — ARRIBAS 1999
Archaeolacerta oxycephala — BISCHOFF 2005
Dalmatolacerta oxycephala — ARNOLD et al. 2007
Lacerta (Dalmatolacerta) oxycephala — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Dalmatolacerta oxycephala — GEBHART 2020 
DistributionS Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Montenegro (especially in coastal regions of the Adriatic Sea), Albania

tomasinii: South Dalmatia, Hercegovina

Type locality: Dalmatia  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 2738, MNHN-RA 2738A, MNHN-RA 2739 and MNHN-RA 2739A (4 syntypes) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Unique among Lacertini in having a particularly sharply pointed snout, the two medial longitudinal scale rows under the tail much more laterally expanded than neighbouring ones, and a pattern of alternating blue-green and blackish bands on the tail (except in melanic animals). Also possessing the following features found only in a minority of other Lacertini: head and body very strongly depressed, usual number of presacral vertebrae 25 in males, medial loop of clavicle always interrupted posteriorly, five upper labial scales in front of subocular, dorsal colouring without longitudinal stripes or series of spots and more or less reticulate even in young, no obvious blue spots on outer ventral scales. Other more widely distributed features include: supraocular osteoderms fenestrated in mature animals, seven premaxillary teeth in adults, inscriptional ribs usually absent, brightly coloured tail in hatchlings, hemipenial microornamentation of crown-shaped tubercles (from Arnold et al. 2007: 39). 
CommentType Species: Lacerta oxycephala Duméril & Bibron, 1839 is the type species of the genus Dalmatolacerta ARNOLD et al. 2007.

Synonymy: Lacerta reticulata BEDRIAGA 1881 may be a synonym of L. oxycephala or related to Apathya cappadocica. See Mehely 1909: 476 for a discussion.

Synonymy: partly fide TIEDEMANN et al. 1994 
  • Aleksic, I.;Tucic, N. 1994. Changes in the components of phenotypic variance and covariance among traits during ontogeny in the sharp-snouted rock lizard (Lacerta oxycephala). Amphibia-Reptilia 15 (1): 47-61 - get paper here
  • Andrea Villa, Massimo Delfino 2019. A comparative atlas of the skull osteology of European lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 187 (3): 829–928 - get paper here
  • ANDRIJCZUK, C. 2009. Bemerkungen zur Reproduktion von Lacerta agilis LINNAEUS, 1758 in einer Falkenzuchtanlage in Niedersachsen. Die Eidechse 20 (3): 81-86. - get paper here
  • Arnold, E.N.; Arribas, O. & Carranza, S. 2007. Systematics of the Palaearctic and Oriental lizard tribe Lacertini (Squamata: Lacertidae: Lacertinae), with descriptions of eight new genera. Zootaxa 1430: 1-86 - get paper here
  • Arribas, O. J. 1999. Phylogeny and relationships of the mountain lizards of Europe and Near East (Archaeolacerta MERTENS, 1921, sensu lato) and their relationships among the eurasian lacertid radiation. Russ. J. Herpetol. 6 (1): 1-22 - get paper here
  • Bischoff, W. 1984. Lacerta oxycephala - Spitzkopfeidechse. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 2/I., Echsen II (Lacerta). Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden, pp. 301-317
  • Bischoff, W. 2005. Die echten Eidechsen der Familie Lacertidae - eine Übersicht. Draco 5 (21): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang; Hendrik Hinkel & Harald Hinkel 2023. Aposematische Schwanzfärbung beim Jungtier von Adolfus africanus (boulenger, 1906) (Squamata: Lacertidae), mit Anmerkungen zur biologischen Bedeutung caudaler Signalfarben Sauria 45 (1): 43-50
  • Bringsøe, Henrik 2019. Dalmatolacerta oxycephala (Squamata: Lacertidae) eating a stink bug on the island of Cres, Croatia, along with other ecological notes. Podarcis 10 (2): 35-38 - get paper here
  • Dieckmann, Martin & Karin Dieckmann 2010. Die mythischen Inseln: Cres und Lošinj. Draco 11 (42): 40-53
  • Dieckmann, Martin D 2007. Zur Eidechsenfauna der mitteldalmatinischen Insel Brac. Die Eidechse 18 (2): 51-54 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Engelmann, W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • GEBHART, J. 2020. Speed-Dating mit den drei Vipernarten Montenegros – Ein Erlebnisbericht. Sauria 42 (2): 28-36
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Gorman, Geroge C.;Nevo, Eviatar 1975. Evolutionary genetics of insular adriatic lizards. Evolution 29: 52-71 - get paper here
  • GVOZDENOVIĆ, S., & IKOVIĆ, V. 2022. CHECKLIST OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MONTENEGRO AND THEIR CONSERVATION STATUS. Natura Montenegrina, Podgorica, 2022, 14 (2): 93-105 - get paper here
  • Henle, K. 1985. Ökologische, zoogeographische und systematische Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna Jugoslawiens. Salamandra 21 (4): 229-251 - get paper here
  • Kolodziej, Kai & Philip Prokosch 2018. Nord-Kroatien – eine herpetologische Fotosafari. Terraria-Elaphe 2018 (4): 40-49 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Reptilien in Europa – eine aktuelle Übersicht. Draco 15 (60): 6-25 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Liste der Reptilien Europas. Draco 15 (60): 72-79 - get paper here
  • MAYER, W. & M. PODNAR 2002. Die Lacertiden des kroatischen Küstengebietes Teil I: Istrien und die Kvarner Bucht. Die Eidechse 13 (1): 8-13 - get paper here
  • MAYER, W. & M. PODNAR 2002. Die Lacertiden des kroatischen Küstengebietes Teil III: Mittel Dalmatien. Die Eidechse 13 (3): 85-88 - get paper here
  • Méhely, Lajos von 1909. Materialien zu einer Systematik und Phylogenie der muralis-ähnlichen Lacerten. Annales historico-naturales Musei nationalis Hungarici, Budapest, 7 (2): 409-621 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R., and L. Müller. 1940. Liste der Amphibien und Reptilien Europas. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main. 451: 1-62 - get paper here
  • Mizsei, Edvárd; Daniel Jablonski; Zsolt Végvári; Szabolcs Lengyel & Márton Szabolcs 2017. Distribution and diversity of reptiles in Albania: a novel database from a Mediterranean hotspot. Amphibia-Reptilia 38: 157-173 - get paper here
  • Podnar, Martina; Branka Bruvo Mađarić and Werner Mayer 2013. Non-concordant phylogeographical patterns of three widely codistributed endemic Western Balkans lacertid lizards (Reptilia, Lacertidae) shaped by specific habitat requirements and different responses to Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12056 - get paper here
  • RICHTER, G. & K. 1991. Bemerkenswerte Beobachtungen an der Spitzkopfeidechse, Lacerta oxycephala DUM. & BIBR., von Mljet, Jugoslawien. Die Eidechse 2 (3): 2-4 - get paper here
  • Sämann, Jürgen & Jochen Zauner 2010. Über eine eingeschleppte Population der Dalmatinischen Spitzkopfeidechse, Dalmatolacerta oxycephala (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1839) auf Cres (Kroatien). Die Eidechse 21 (3): 81-83 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Taddei, A. 1950. Le Lacerte (Archaeolacerta e Podarcis) dell’Istria e della Dalmazia. Pontificia Academia Scientarum Commentationes 14: 137-166 - get paper here
  • Toth, T. et al. 2006. Herpetofaunal data from Cres Island, Croatia. Herpetozoa 19 (1/2): 27 - 58 - get paper here
  • Trapp, B. 2011. Eine herbstliche Stippvisite in Montenegro. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (90): 38-46 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 1975. Europäische Amphibien und Reptilien. Belser Verlag, Stuttgart 212 pp.
  • Vogrin, Nusa 1997. On the herpetofauna of Lake Vrana and its vicinity (Dalmacia, Croatia) (Amphibia, Reptilia). Herpetozoa 10 (1/2): 85-88 - get paper here
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