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Dendroaspis polylepis GÜNTHER, 1864

IUCN Red List - Dendroaspis polylepis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesDendroaspis polylepis polylepis (GÜNTHER, 1864)
Dendroaspis polylepis antinorii (PETERS, 1873) 
Common NamesE: Black Mamba
G: Schwarze Mamba 
SynonymDendroaspis polylepis polylepis GÜNTHER 1864
Dendraspis polylepis GÜNTHER 1864: 310
Dendraspis angusticeps BOULENGER 1896: 437
Dendraspis angusticeps — LOVERIDGE 1936: 42 ?
Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis — LOVERIDGE 1955
Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis — WELCH 1994: 55
Dendroaspis polylepis — AUERBACH 1987: 201
Dendroaspis polylepis — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 24
Dendroaspis polylepis —TRAPE & MANEÉ 2006

Dendroaspis polylepis antinorii (PETERS 1873)
Dendraspis antinorii PETERS 1873
Dendroaspis polylepis antinori — WELCH 1994: 55 
DistributionAngola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Eritrea, Senegal, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Cameroon (Adamaoua [HR 35: 191]), Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Republic of South Africa, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, N/S Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Zambia, Zimbabwe

antinori: Somalia, Ethiopia, NE Uganda, N Kenya; Type locality: Ansaba = Anseba, Eritrea, Ethiopia.

Type locality: Zambezi River, Mozambique. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype, BMNH 1946.1.20.53 [orig. BMNH 1864.6.28.15], skin of an 1829 mm specimen (J. Kirk). 
CommentVenomous! Peptides from the black mamba (mambalgins), are not toxic in mice but show a potent analgesic effect upon central and peripheral injection that can be as strong as morphine (Diochot et al. 2012).

BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991 list Dendraspis antinorii as a synonym of D. polylepis.

Reproduction: oviparous 
References
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  • Auerbach,R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. 1993. The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia. Madoqua (Windhoek), 18 (2): 117-145.
  • BAYNHAM, T. 2010. Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Günther, 1864) Afr. Herp News (51): 25-27
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), wit a country-wide checklist Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
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  • Broadley, D.G. 1961. Snakes of Southem Rhodesia. 11. The Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis). Afr. Wild Life 15: 299-302.
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  • Diochot, Sylvie; Anne Baron, Miguel Salinas, Dominique Douguet, Sabine Scarzello, Anne-Sophie Dabert 2012. Black mamba venom peptides target acid-sensing ion channels to abolish pain. Nature 490: 552–555 - get paper here
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Terralog 15, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 150 pp.
  • Föhrenbach,H. 1982. Dendroaspis polylepis in Westafrika. Herpetofauna 4 (17): 34 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1864. Report on a collection of reptiles and fishes made by Dr. Kirk in the Zambesi and Nyassa Regions. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864: 303-314 [310] - get paper here
  • Haagner,G.V.; Branch,W.R. & Haagner,A.J.F. 2000. Notes on a collection of reptiles from Zambia and adjacent areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Annals of the Eastern Cape Museum 1: 1 – 25
  • Jacobsen, Niels H.G.; Errol W. Pietersen & Darren W. Pietersen 2010. A preliminary herpetological survey of the Vilanculos Coastal Wildlife Sanctuary on the San Sebastian Peninsula, Vilankulo, Mozambique. Herpetology Notes 3: 181-193
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
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  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 694 pp.
  • LeBreton, Matthew 1999. A working checklist of the herpetofauna of Cameroon. Netherlands Committee for IUCN, 160 pp.
  • Loveridge, A. 1956. On snakes collected in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan by J.S. Owen, Esq. Sudan Notes Rec. 36: 37-56 [1955]
  • Loveridge,A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • MARITZ, B. & ALEXANDER, G.J. 2010. Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Günther, 1864) Afr. Herp News (51): 27-28
  • Monzel, Markus M 2012. Gifte, Gifttiere, Menschen – eine Geschichte voller (Miss)Verständnisse Draco 13 (51): 4-25 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1873. Über zwei Giftschlangen aus Afrika und über neue oder weniger bekannte Gattungen und Arten von Batrachiern. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1873 (Mai): 411-418 - get paper here
  • Phelps, Tony 2002. A study of the Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with particular reference to long-term-refugia. Herpetological Bulletin (80):7-19
  • Pietersen, Darren W.<br />Pietersen, Errol W.<br />Haacke, Wulf D. 2013. First herpetological appraisal of the Parque Nacional de Banhine, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History 3: 153-163 - get paper here
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
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  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2001. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147]
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mane, Y. 2004. Les serpents des environs de Bandafassi (Sénégal oriental). Bull. Soc. Herp. France 109: 5-34 - get paper here
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