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Diporiphora bilineata GRAY, 1842

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Amphibolurinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesNorthern Two-line Dragon, Two-Lined Dragon 
SynonymDiporiphora bilineata GRAY 1842: 54
Diporiphora bilineata — BOULENGER 1885: 394
Physignathus nigricollis LÖNNBERG & ANDERSSON 1915 (partim)
Diporiphora bilineata — DE ROOIJ 1915: 134
Diporiphora bilineata — COGGER 1983
Diporiphora bilineata — MACEY et al. 2000
Diporiphora bilineata — COGGER 2000: 330
Diporiphora bilineata — DOUGHTY et al. 2012
Diporiphora bilineata — MELVILLE et al. 2019: 41 
DistributionNew Guinea, N Australia
Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia)

Type locality: Port Essington, N. T.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.8.12.75. Designation by Wells & Wellington 1985. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): A diverse genus, distributed across all states and territories, except Tasmania, predominately in semi-arid, arid and AMT biomes. Small- to medium-sized lizards that are mostly terrestrial or semi-arboreal. Moderately long snout with relatively long legs and tail. All species have exposed tympanum, and most species have pre-cloacal pores with femoral pores occasionally present. Generally lacking prominent crests, large spinose scales or dermal appendages, although present in some species (e.g. D. amphiboluroides). Colour patterning variable within species, particularly between breeding males and females or juveniles. In general, most species have pale dorsolateral stripes, dark transverse dorsal bars, a black circular blotch on shoulders or neck, and a pink to mauve flush on hips and tail base (particularly in adult males) [from Melville et al. 2019: 27].

Diagnosis (bilineata): Body size moderate (to 58 mm SVL) with long tail (2.2–2.7 × SVL). Gular and post-auricular folds absent, scapular fold present but weak. Granular scales in axilla, extending over arm to neck. Dorsal scales moderately heterogeneous: scales on 2nd paravertebral row and the two rows of pale dorsolateral scales slightly enlarged and raised. Flanks dark in colour with dark colour of granular scales extending posteriorly onto flanks, which have a speckled appearance due to scattered white scales on the dark background. Pre-cloacal pores 2; femoral pores 0.

Diagnostic characters for the bilienata group (Table 2 in Melville et al. 2019):
• one canine tooth on each side of upper jaw
• granular scales in axilla present, with the exception of D. lalliae
• lateral dark spot in axilla • femoral pores absent.
 
CommentType species: Diporiphora bilineata GRAY 1842 is the type species of the genus Diporiphora GRAY 1842: 53.

Synonymy mainly after COGGER 1983. Grammatophora jugularis is listed under Amphibolurus by BOULENGER (1885) but considered as doubtful.

For a comparison of diagnostic characters among Diporiphora see Melville et al. 2019: 29, Table 4.

Group: The D. bilineata species group contains the following species: D. bilineata lalliae, magna. margaretae, gracilis, granulifera, carpentariensis (fide Melville et al. 2019: 40).

Distribution: for a map see Melville et al. 2019: 41 (Fig. 14).

Lifestyle: semi-arboreal. 
Etymology 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp.
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp.
  • Garman, S. 1901. Some reptiles and batrachians from Australasia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 39: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1842. Description of some hitherto unrecorded species of Australian reptiles and batrachians. Zoological Miscellany 2: 51—57 (London: Treuttel, Würtz & Co) - get paper here
  • Longman, H. A. 1916. Snakes and lizards from Queensland and the Northern Territory. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 5: 46-51
  • Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte II, A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, Y. Wang, R. Pethiyagoda, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, T. J. Papenfuss 2000. Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 49 (2): 233-256 - get paper here
  • Macleay, W. 1877. The lizards of the Chevert Expedition. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 2: 60-69; 97-104 - get paper here
  • Maryan, Brad 1995. A note on colour change in Diporiphora bilineata. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 25 (2): 61
  • Mayer, M. 2014. Von Schlangen, Kröten und Krokodilen im tropischen „Top End“ Australiens. Ein Reise- und Studienbericht. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (110): 76-85
  • Melville, J., Smith Date, K.L., Horner, P., and Doughty, P. 2019. Taxonomic revision of dragon lizards in the genus Diporiphora (Reptilia: Agamidae) from the Australian monsoonal tropics. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 78: 23–55 - get paper here
  • Smith, Katie L.; Luke J. Harmon, Luke P. Shoo, and Jane Melville 2011. EVIDENCE OF CONSTRAINED PHENOTYPIC EVOLUTION IN A CRYPTIC SPECIES COMPLEX OF AGAMID LIZARDS. Evolution 65-4: 976–992
  • Storr, G. M. 1974. Agamid lizards of the genera Caimanops, Physignathus and Diporiphora in Western Australia and Northern Territory. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3: 121-146 - get paper here
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
 
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